"أوريون" في رحلة تجريبية تنقل بشرًا إلى المريخ

رئيس التحرير
2019.06.17 05:43

 إنطلاق أول مركبة فضائية تنقل بشرًا إلى المريخ
إيلاف- متابعة
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الإمارات... أول خطوة نحو المريخ
غزو المريخ يصطدم بصعوبة التناسل على سطحه
لا تستطيع السفر إلى المريخ... لكن اسمك يستطيع!

رحلت "أوريون" إلى الفضاء الخارجي في رحلة تجريبية، لتستخدمها ناسا بعد ذلك في إرسال رواد الفضاء إلى المريخ.

بيروت: أطلقت إدارة الطيران والفضاء الأميركية – ناسا الجمعة الكبسولة غير المأهولة "أوريون"، في رحلة تجريبية حول الأرض، تمهيدًا لاستخدامها يومًا لنقل رواد الفضاء إلى كوكب المريخ. وانطلق صاروخ دلتا-4، أكبر صواريخ للدفع في الأسطول الأميركي حاليًا- من قاعدة كيب كنافيرال للقوات الجوية بولاية فلوريدا.

24 طابق

وكانت يونايتيد لونش الايانس، وهي شراكة تجمع شركتي لوكهيد مارتن وبوينغ وتصنع وتشغل الصاروخ، أرجأت الإطلاق يومًا واحدًا لحل مشكلة في نظام الدفع الخاص بالمرحلة الأولى للصاروخ.

وانطلق الصاروخ الذي يعادل ارتفاعه 24 طابقًا في سماء المحيط الأطلسي واخترق السحب في طريقه إلى المدار. واصطفت السيارات لأميال حول قاعدة الاطلاق ليتابع الناس الحدث. وتعمل ناسا على الكبسولة أوريون وعلى صاروخ جديد لحمل شحنات ثقيلة منذ أكثر من ثماني سنوات.

إلى المريخ!

تغير تصميم الصاروخ، لكن الكبسولة "أوريون" نجت من إلغاء برنامج لاستكشاف القمر، وأصبحت في قلب مبادرة فضائية جديدة لنقل رواد الفضاء يومًا إلى المريخ. وستحلق "اوريون" على ارتفاع 5800 كيلومتر من الارض.

وأنفقت ناسا أكثر من 9 مليارات دولار على تطوير "اوريون"، التي ستقوم برحلة تجريبية ثانية من دون طاقم خلال أربع سنوات. وستحمل المهمة الثالثة المتوقعة في العام 2021 اثنين من رواد الفضاء في رحلة تأخذ الكبسولة إلى مدار مرتفع حول القمر.

Splashdown! Nasas Orion spacecraft makes bullseye landing in the Pacific Ocean afterflawless historic test flight around Earth  Orion re-entered the atmosphere at 20,000 mph (32,000 kph) enduring temperatures of 2,200°C (4,000°F) It splashed down at target point 275 miles (442 km) west of Baja, California while travelling at 20mph (32km/h) Nasas Orion spacecraft is designed to carry astronauts to an asteroid and eventually to Mars in the 2030s It launched at 12.05 GMT (07.05 ET) today on a 4.5 hours journey that saw it travel twice around the Earth  Orion reached an altitude of 3,600 miles (5,800 km) - 15 times the distance to the International Space Station It also travelled through Earths Van Allen radiation belts that protect the planet from highly-charged particles Data from this will show how well equipment tolerates radiation at the levels experienced on a journey to Mars  Lift-off was aborted yesterday due to a rogue boat straying into waters, high winds and a valve problem In future, it will be used with worlds most powerful rocket, Space Launch System, to take people to deep space15

Nasas new Orion spacecraft made a bulls-eye splashdown in the Pacific today following a dramatic test flight that took it twice around Earth in 4.5 hours.

The spacecraft, which could someday take humans to Mars, made a fiery 20,000 mph (32,000 kph) re-entry into the planet enduring temperatures of 2,200°C (4,000°F)

If astronauts had been onboard Orion, they would have experienced a g-force of 8.2 - nearly twice that generated when Soyuz capsules return from the International Space Station.

Orion hit its target point 275 miles (442 km) west of Baja, California, and achieved at least one record: flying farther and faster than any capsule built for humans since the Apollo moon program.

Scroll down for live stream and videos 

Rapid entry: If astronauts had been on board Orion as it plunged back to Earth they would have experienced a g-force of 8.2 - nearly twice that generated when Soyuz capsules return from the International Space Station.

Theres your new spacecraft, America, Mission Control commentator Rob Navias said as the Orion capsule neared the water. He called the journey the most perfect flight you could ever imagine.

The capsule reached a peak altitude more than 14 times farther from Earth than the International Space Station. No spacecraft designed for astronauts had gone so far since Apollo 17, 42 years ago.

Nasa needed to send Orion that high in order to set the crew module up for a rapid and fiery entry. That was considered the most critical part of the entire flight - testing the largest of its kind heat shield for survival before humans climb aboard.

In 11 minutes, Orion slowed from to 20 mph (32km/h) at splashdown - its final descent aided by eight parachutes deployed in sequence.  

Earth shrank from view through Orions capsule window during its trip out to space, and stunning images were relayed back home. Its return was recorded by an unmanned drone flying over the recovery zone, providing more spectacular views. 

Helicopters then relayed images of the crew module bobbing in the water. Three of the five air bags deployed properly, enough to keep the capsule floating upright.

Live: Nasas Orion spacecraft launch

Back to Earth: After two perfect laps around the planet, Orion has come back down to Earth with a huge splash in the Pacific Ocean

The US Navy was there to recover the spacecraft 630 miles (1,013km) southwest of San Diego, where it will be brought to land. All the parachutes did their job, but only two of the eight were recovered. 

The agency reported some positive results, saying onboard computers were unaffected by high radiation in space

A fifth of the heat shield burned away during re-entry as temperatures reached 2,200°C (4,000°F) - twice as hot as molten lava. However, that is only half as hot as the spacecraft will get when returning from the moon and entering the atmosphere at 20 per cent greater velocity. 

Eleven parachutes, deployed in sequences, slowed the spacecraft down until it was travelling at just 20mph by the time it made a bulls-eye splashdown in the Pacific. 

It follows a near-perfect test-flight earlier today. Riding atop a fountain of fire, the 24-story-tall Orion spacecraft soared above the Atlantic Ocean at 12.05 GMT (07.05 ET), punching through partly cloudy skies. 

The star of the day is Orion, said Nasa Administrator Charles Bolden, back for the second morning in a row. He called it day one of the Mars era.

From 20,000 mph to zero: Three of the five airbags on board fully deployed, one partially deployed and the other didnt seem to deploy. However, these were enough to keep the spacecraft upright

 

On target: Orion splashed down at its target point 275 miles (442 km) west of Baja, California while travelling at around 20mph (32km/h)

 

On Mars at the moment there are currently two operational rovers, Curiosity and Opportunity, and Nasa hopes one day astronauts will join them on the red planet. Curiosity tweeted its support for Orion, saying: Were one step closer to bootprints next to these tracks

The maiden launch of the Orion spacecraft was postponed yesterday after a technical fault, a stray boat and poor weather conditions hampered efforts to blast into space. 

However, todays test flight and splashdown were described by Nasa as picture perfect.

As the rocket roared into orbit, cameras streamed video showing dramatic pictures of the two side boosters falling away and the curved edge of the Earth. 

Orion reached a peak altitude of 3,600 miles (5,800 km) on its second lap around the planet, giving the capsule the necessary momentum for a scorchingly high-speed re-entry over the Pacific.

The spacecraft also travelled through Earths Van Allen radiation belts that protect the planet from charged particles. Scientists say this will show how well equipment tolerates radiation like that experienced on the long journey to Mars.

Just three minutes into the launch, the spacecraft was already travelling at five times the speed of sound. But Orion would ultimately travel much faster.

Engineers wanted to see how the heat shield - the largest of its kind ever built - held up when Orion came back through the atmosphere travelling 20,000 mph (32,200 kph) and enduring temperature of 2,200°C (4,000°F).

WHAT HAPPENED DURING ORIONS BLAZING DESCENT BACK DOWN TO EARTH? 

Four hours and five minutes after launching, Orion exited the intense radiation of the Van Allen belts, its cameras were turned on and it prepared for re-entry into Earths atmosphere.

This was the major test for the spacecraft; Nasa needed to know the heat shield could cope with the extreme condtions of re-entry when returning from future missions to the moon, an asteroid or Mars.

Eight and a half minutes after leaving the belts, Orion reached the upper limits of Earths atmosphere and began to generate heat as it passed through at about 20,000mph (32,000 km/h), with its thrusters maintain control and keeping its heat shield pointing down.

Just a few seconds later, as planned, the flight control team lost contact with Orion for about 2.5 minutes as a superheated plasma formed around the capsule, blocking signals in and out.

Orion then experienced the hottest period of its return through the atmosphere with its heat shield reaching temperatures approaching 2,200C (4,000F), twice as hot as molten lava, and g-forces of up to eight Gs.

Heading through the atmosphere also slowed the spacecraft drastically, from 20,000mph (32,000 km/h) to just 300mph (480 km/h).

The spacecraft passed this test without a hitch. After travelling through the atmosphere for more than four minutes, the spacecraft jettisoned its forward bay cover.

This had on it the tiles that protect Orion from the heat of re-entry. The tiles dissipate heat away from the spacecraft and ensure the temperatures stay habitable.

The forward bay cover had three parachutes of its own that lowered it to the Pacific Ocean safely.

A couple of seconds after it jettisoned the cover, Orion deployed two drogue parachutes that slowed the spacecraft, which was travelling at 300mph (480 km/h) at the time.

A minute later, three pilot parachutes then pulled the three massive main parachutes out – which cover the size of a football field.

These slowed Orion from about 100mph (160km/h) to less than 20mph (30km/h).

And finally, four hours, 23 minutes and 29 seconds after launching, Orion landed in the Pacific Ocean 275 miles (442 km) west of Baja, California.

Airbags deployed to keep the spacecraft upright, in a position known as Stable 1. Stable 2 would have meant it was upside down.

Three of the five airbags on board fully deployed, one partially deployed and the other didnt seem to deploy. However, these were enough to keep the spacecraft upright.

This is important for future missions, as if it does not stay upright then getting the astronauts out could be dangerous and difficult.

Orion ultimately is pulled to the deck of the ship USS Anchorage by a combined Nasa and US Navy team, bringing to an end the mission that has taken the first step towards Mars. 

Safe landing: Eleven parachutes, deployed in sequences, slowed the spacecraft down until it was travelling at just 20mph by the time it made a bulls-eye splashdown in the Pacific

On hand: U.S. Navy ship were waiting to retrieve Orion and return it to land after its 4.5 hour journey twice around the Earth

First step towards Mars: Orions Delta IV rocket clears the service tower that sits alongside the launchpad at Cape Canaveral. The high-stakes test flight is meant to usher in a new era of human exploration leading ultimately to Mars

This incredible picture taken by astronaut Rex Walheim from the ground shows the moment Orion punched a hole through the clouds of Earth on its way to space after launching on top of the Delta IV Heavy rocket

Separation: Three protective panels encasing the Orion service module fell away from the Orion Space Capsule just minutes after launch

Leaving Earth: Riding atop a fountain of fire, the 24-story-tall Orion spacecraft soared above the Atlantic Ocean at 12.05 GMT (07.05 ET) today

Stunning: Orion was pictured here just hours before launch. The earliest Orion might carry passengers is 2021, according to Nasa

The atmosphere at Kennedy Space Center was reminiscent of the shuttle-flying days. After more than three years since the last shuttle flight, Nasa reveled in all the attention.

Launch commentator Mike Curie fed the enthusiasm in the gathered crowds, calling it the dawn of Orion in a new era of American space exploration

Mark Geyer, Orion programme manager at Nasa, said: It was very good to see how well the rocket did its job and very exciting to see it go up into space. 

Now it is actually doing the job it was designed to do. We still have a long way to go with this mission but everything is going great. 

We had a few key tests to run in the first six minutes of the flight that were very important for us.

We jettisoned service module fairing which are there to reduce mass on the rest of Orion. This is a critical event these pyrotechnic systems and it went perfectly.

A NEW DAWN OF SPACE EXPLORATION: ORIONS FIRST TEST FLIGHT AS IT HAPPENED 

Down to Earth: Orion is expected to have a rapid re-entry speed into the atmosphere close to 32,000km/h (20,000mph), according to Nasa

 

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