علماء فلك يكتشفون أجساما لنظام شمسي جديد وجوبتير صار اقرب

رئيس التحرير
2017.11.23 07:13

اول صور عن جوبتير

  By Jupiter! Strange blue hue and stormy condition sare seen on planet for first time          

 

علماء فلك يكتشفون أجساما لنظام شمسي جديد

كشف علماء فلك في الولايات المتحدة عن أجسام لم تكن معروفة من قبل في مناطق خارج النظام الشمسي.

وتضم هذه الأجسام جسما جليديا بمدار يأخذه بعيدا عن الشمس على نحو يخضع على الأرجح لجاذبية نجوم أخرى.

جاء الكشف خلال جهود تهدف إلى تحديد موقع كوكب تاسع محتمل مستدل من دراسات سابقة على نحو غير مباشر.

ومن المقرر نشر الدراسة في دورية "أسترونوميكال" المعنية بأبحاث الفضاء.

وقدم مشرفا الدراسة، سكوت شيبارد و تشاد تريجيللو، تفاصيل اكتشافهما لمركز "ماينور بلانيت" مع شرح مستفيض لهذه الأجسام بالإضافة إلى الكوكيبات والمذنبات.

واستعان الباحثان بعدد من المراصد الفلكية المتنوعة في شتى أرجاء العالم، بما في ذلك تلسكوب "بلانكو" في تشيلي الذي يصل طوله إلى أربعة أمتار وتسلكوب "سوبارو" في هاواي الذي يصل طوله إلى ثمانية أمتار.

ومن بين هذه الأجسام الجديدة المكتشفة، المعروف حاليا باسم 2014 إف إي 72، أول سحابة " أورط" اكتشفت بمدار بعيدا عن كوكب نيبتون.

وتعتبر سحابة "أورط" أكبر الأجسام التي تحتل المنطقة خارج النظام الشمسي.

نظرية أكبر

واستطاع شيبارد، من معهد كارنيغي للعلوم في واشنطن، وتريغيللو، من جامعة تورثرن أريزونا، دراسة كيفية دمج الأجسام الجديدة التي تشبه الكواكب داخل نظريات أكبر تتعلق بكوكب تاسع الكامن في أقاصي النظام الشمسي.

ويشارك أحد هذه الأجسام السماوية الجديدة، 2013 إف تي 28، بخصائص مداره عموما مع الأجسام التي تدعم مواقعها وحركتها فكرة وجود كوكب تاسع، لكنها تظهر بعض الاختلافات.

وبتحليل الأجسام الصغيرة الأخرى للنظام الشمسي الخارجي، يقترح علماء الفلك، إن ثبت ذلك، أن الكوكب التاسع أكبر عدة مرات من كوكب الأرض ويبعد بنحو 200 مرة قدر بعد الأرض عن الشمس.

وسوف يساعد العمل الجديد في تحديد موقع هذا الكوكب التاسع المقترح.

وقال شيبارد : "يمكن لهذه الأجسام الأصغر أن تقودنا إلى كوكب أكبر يعتقد أنه يوجد في الخارج".

وأضاف : "كلما اكتشفنا المزيد، كان بمقدورنا فهم أفضل لما يحدث خارج النظام الشمسي".

وكان كوكب بولوتو، الذي اكتشف عام 1930، يعرف سابقا بالكوكب التاسع. لكن أزيلت عنه وضعية كوكب عام 2006 في أعقاب اكتشاف جسم بحجم مماثل في حزام كويبر، وهي حلقة من الأجسام الجليدية خارج كوكب نيبتون.

Jupiter up close: Historic first high resolution images reveal strange blue hue and stormy conditions like nothing we have seen or imagined before

  • Juno passed within about 2,600 miles of the solar systems largest planet on Saturday
  • The pass was made while traveling at 130,000 miles per hour 
  • It was the first time Junos eight scientific instruments and its camera were switched on 

Nasas Juno spacecraft has sent back the first-ever images of Jupiters poles, taken during the spacecrafts first flyby of the planet with its instruments switched on.

The incredible images show storm systems and weather activity unlike anything previously seen.

They reveal stormy conditions, high clouds and a strange blue hue on the planet.

Scroll down for video 

As Nasas Juno spacecraft closed in on Jupiter for its Aug. 27, 2016 pass, its view grew sharper and fine details in the north polar region became increasingly visible. The JunoCam instrument obtained this view on August 27, about two hours before closest approach, when the spacecraft was 120,000 miles (195,000 kilometers) away from the giant planet (i.e., for Jupiters center).

As Nasas Juno spacecraft closed in on Jupiter for its Aug. 27, 2016 pass, its view grew sharper and fine details in the north polar region became increasingly visible. The JunoCam instrument obtained this view on August 27, about two hours before closest approach, when the spacecraft was 120,000 miles (195,000 kilometers) away from the giant planet (i.e., for Jupiters center).

Juno successfully executed the first of 36 orbital flybys on Aug. 27 when the spacecraft came about 2,500 miles (4,200 kilometers) above Jupiters swirling clouds. 

The download of six megabytes of data collected during the six-hour transit, from above Jupiters north pole to below its south pole, took one-and-a-half days. 

Unlike rocky Earth and Mars, Jupiter is a gas giant that likely formed first, shortly after the sun. 

Studying the largest planet in the solar system may hold clues to understanding how Earth and the rest of the planets formed, astronomers hope.

While analysis of this first data collection is ongoing, some unique discoveries have already made themselves visible.

 

This image from NASAs Juno spacecraft provides a never-before-seen perspective on Jupiters south pole. The JunoCam instrument acquired the view on August 27, 2016, when the spacecraft was about 58,700 miles (94,500 kilometers) above the polar region. At this point, the spacecraft was about an hour past its closest approach, and fine detail in the south polar region is clearly resolved. Unlike the equatorial regions familiar structure of belts and zones, the poles are mottled by clockwise and counterclockwise rotating storms of various sizes, similar to giant versions of terrestrial hurricanes.

First glimpse of Jupiters north pole, and it looks like nothing we have seen or imagined before, said Scott Bolton, principal investigator of Juno from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. 

Its bluer in color up there than other parts of the planet, and there are a lot of storms. 

 

There is no sign of the latitudinal bands or zone and belts that we are used to - this image is hardly recognizable as Jupiter. 

Were seeing signs that the clouds have shadows, possibly indicating that the clouds are at a higher altitude than other features.

THE AURORAS OF JUPITER 

An unprecedented view of the southern aurora of Jupiter

An unprecedented view of the southern aurora of Jupiter

This infrared image gives an unprecedented view of the southern aurora of Jupiter, as captured by NASAs Juno spacecraft on August 27, 2016.

The planets southern aurora can hardly be seen from Earth due to our home planets position in respect to Jupiters south pole. 

Junos unique polar orbit provides the first opportunity to observe this region of the gas-giant planet in detail.

Junos Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) camera acquired the view at wavelengths ranging from 3.3 to 3.6 microns -- the wavelengths of light emitted by excited hydrogen ions in the polar regions. 

The view is a mosaic of three images taken just minutes apart from each other, about four hours after the perijove pass while the spacecraft was moving away from Jupiter.

One of the most notable findings of these first-ever pictures of Jupiters north and south poles is something that the JunoCam imager did not see.

Saturn has a hexagon at the north pole, said Bolton. 

There is nothing on Jupiter that anywhere near resembles that. 

This montage of 10 JunoCam images shows Jupiter growing and shrinking in apparent size before and after NASAs Juno spacecraft made its closest approach on August 27, 2016, at 12:50 UTC.
The images are spaced about 10 hours apart, one Jupiter day, so the Great Red Spot is always in roughly the same place. The small black spots visible on the planet in some of the images are shadows of the large Galilean moons.

This montage of 10 JunoCam images shows Jupiter growing and shrinking in apparent size before and after NASAs Juno spacecraft made its closest approach on August 27, 2016, at 12:50 UTC. The images are spaced about 10 hours apart, one Jupiter day, so the Great Red Spot is always in roughly the same place. The small black spots visible on the planet in some of the images are shadows of the large Galilean moons.

The largest planet in our solar system is truly unique. We have 36 more flybys to study just how unique it really is.

Along with JunoCam snapping pictures during the flyby, all eight of Junos science instruments were energized and collecting data. 

This image provides a close-up view of Jupiters southern hemisphere, as seen by NASAs Juno spacecraft on August 27, 2016. The JunoCam instrument captured this image with its red spectral filter when the spacecraft was about 23,600 miles (38,000 kilometers) above the cloud tops.
The image covers an area from close to the south pole to 20 degrees south of the equator, centered on a longitude at about 140 degrees west. The transition between the banded structures near the equator and the more chaotic polar region (south of about 65 degrees south latitude) can be clearly seen. A second version of the image shows the same view with a latitude/longitude grid overlaid.

This image provides a close-up view of Jupiters southern hemisphere, as seen by NASAs Juno spacecraft on August 27, 2016. The JunoCam instrument captured this image with its red spectral filter when the spacecraft was about 23,600 miles (38,000 kilometers) above the cloud tops. The image covers an area from close to the south pole to 20 degrees south of the equator, centered on a longitude at about 140 degrees west. The transition between the banded structures near the equator and the more chaotic polar region (south of about 65 degrees south latitude) can be clearly seen. A second version of the image shows the same view with a latitude/longitude grid overlaid.

The Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM), supplied by the Italian Space Agency, acquired some remarkable images of Jupiter at its north and south polar regions in infrared wavelengths.

JIRAM is getting under Jupiters skin, giving us our first infrared close-ups of the planet, said Alberto Adriani, JIRAM co-investigator from Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Rome. 

These first infrared views of Jupiters north and south poles are revealing warm and hot spots that have never been seen before. 

And while we knew that the first-ever infrared views of Jupiters south pole could reveal the planets southern aurora, we were amazed to see it for the first time. 

No other instruments, both from Earth or space, have been able to see the southern aurora. 

Juno was about 48,000 miles (78,000 kilometers) above Jupiters polar cloud tops when it captured this view, showing storms and weather unlike anywhere else in the solar system.

Juno was about 48,000 miles (78,000 kilometers) above Jupiters polar cloud tops when it captured this view, showing storms and weather unlike anywhere else in the solar system.

THE LEGO FIGURES ON JUNO 

Along with the instruments Juno is also carrying three tiny passengers in the form of Lego figures, made from spacecraft-grade Aluminium. The three models include models of the god Jupiter, his wife and mission namesake the goddess Juno, and astronomer Galileo

Along with the instruments Juno is also carrying three tiny passengers in the form of Lego figures, made from spacecraft-grade Aluminium. The three models include models of the god Jupiter, his wife and mission namesake the goddess Juno, and astronomer Galileo

Hitching a ride on Juno are three 1.5-inch Lego figures depicting the 17th century Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei, the Roman god Jupiter, and the deitys wife Juno - all made from aluminium to withstand the Jupiters harsh environment.

By drawing attention to these Lego characters, Nasa aims to inspire the next generation of spacecraft engineers by encouraging children to explore subjects such as science and technology.

But they are on a suicide mission. Juno, along with its three passengers, meets its demise in 2018 when it deliberately dives into Jupiters atmosphere and disintegrates — a necessary sacrifice to prevent any chance of accidentally crashing into the planets potentially habitable moons.

Now, with JIRAM, we see that it appears to be very bright and well-structured. 

The high level of detail in the images will tell us more about the auroras morphology and dynamics.

Among the more unique data sets collected by Juno during its first scientific sweep by Jupiter was that acquired by the missions Radio/Plasma Wave Experiment (Waves), which recorded ghostly-sounding transmissions emanating from above the planet. 

These radio emissions from Jupiter have been known about since the 1950s but had never been analyzed from such a close vantage point.

 

Jupiter is talking to us in a way only gas-giant worlds can, said Bill Kurth, co-investigator for the Waves instrument from the University of Iowa, Iowa City. 

Waves detected the signature emissions of the energetic particles that generate the massive auroras which encircle Jupiters north pole. 

NASAS Juno probe made its closet approach yet to Jupiter on Saturday during the main phase of its planned mission to the gas giant (pictured)

NASAS Juno probe made its closet approach yet to Jupiter on Saturday during the main phase of its planned mission to the gas giant (pictured)

These emissions are the strongest in the solar system. 

Now we are going to try to figure out where the electrons come from that are generating them. 

Juno activated its suite of nine instruments as it soared 2,600 miles (4180km) above Jupiters swirling clouds tops, travelling at 130,000mph (209,200 km/h), last week.

On schedule, the agency tweeted that Juno had successfully completed its closest ever fly-by to the planet, the first of 36, which are scheduled to end in February 2018.

We are getting some intriguing early data returns as we speak, said Scott Bolton, principal investigator of Juno from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. 

It will take days for all the science data collected during the flyby to be downlinked and even more to begin to comprehend what Juno and Jupiter are trying to tell us. 

Juno first swept close to Jupiter when it entered orbit around the planet early last month after a nearly five-year voyage to help study the solar systems origins.

However, all the probes instruments were turned off not to interfere with its positioning as it entered the 53.5-day orbit. 

Juno swung within about 2,600 miles of the solar systems largest planet, the closest any spacecraft has passed, traveling at 130,000 miles per hour

Juno swung within about 2,600 miles of the solar systems largest planet, the closest any spacecraft has passed, traveling at 130,000 miles per hour

Juno will now be probing Jupiters many layers to measure their composition, magnetic field and other properties. 

Scientists hope to learn the source of the planets fierce winds and whether Jupiter is made entirely of gas or has a solid core.

They also expect to learn more about the planets great red spot, a huge storm that has raged for thousands of years.

Saturdays flyby was Junos first chance to take pictures of Jupiters mysterious poles. 

 
This image obtained from NASA, shows a color view from NASAs Juno spacecraft made from some of the first images taken by JunoCam after the spacecraft entered orbit around Jupiter on July 5th

This image obtained from NASA, shows a color view from NASAs Juno spacecraft made from some of the first images taken by JunoCam after the spacecraft entered orbit around Jupiter on July 5th

We are in an orbit nobody has ever been in before, and these images give us a whole new perspective on this gas-giant world, said Bolton. 

Although data from the probe is expected to reach Earth in several days, results from scientists analysis will take longer.

This is our first opportunity and there are bound to be surprises, Steve Levin, Juno project scientist from NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California said. 

We need to take our time to make sure our conclusions are correct.

Juno is set to make 35 more close passes by Jupiter during its main mission, scheduled to end in February 2018, when the probe will self-destruct by diving into the planets atmosphere.

 
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