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نوبل للكيمياء الى فرنسي وبريطاني وهولندي لاستحداثهم “الآلات الجزيئية” الصغيرة جدا

رئيس التحرير
2018.08.13 14:07


nobel

ستوكهولم -(أ ف ب) – منحت جائزة نوبل الكيمياء للعام 2016 الاربعاء الى الفرنسي جان بيار سوفاج والبريطاني ج. فرايرز ستودارت والهولندي برنارد فيرينخا لاستحداثهم “الآلات الجزيئية” وهي اصغر الآلات في العالم.

واوضحت لجنة نوبل في حيثيات قرارها ان الباحثين الثلاثة “نقلوا الانظمة الجزيئية الى مراحل بات فيها من الممكن التحكم بحركتها عندما تكون مليئة طاقة”.

واضافت “ان المحرك الجزيئي بات اليوم على المستوى الذي كان عليه المحرك الكهربائي في 1830 عندما كان العلماء يعرضون المرافق والدواليب من دون ان يدركوا انها ستؤدي الى قطارات كهربائية وغسالات ومكيفات وخلاطات”.

ومضت اللجنة تقول ان هذه الآلات المنمنمة “يرجح جدا ان تستخدم في تطوير اشياء مثل مواد جديدة واجهزة استشعار وانظمة لتخزين الطاقة”.

وتترافق الجائزة مع مكافأة مالية قدرها ثمانية ملايين كورونة سويدية (832 الف يورو).

وكانت الجائزة العام الماضي من نصيب عزيز سنجر (تركيا/الولايات المتحدة) وتوماس ليندال (السويد) وبول مودريش (الولايات المتحدة) لاعمالهم حول تصحيح الحمض النووي.

وجائزة الكيمياء هي اخر مكافآت نوبل في مجال العلوم الطبيعية.

فقد سبق ان منحت جائزة الطب الاثنين الى الياباني يوشينوري اوسومي الذي القى الضوء على جانب من الالتهام الذاتي الذي يؤدي الى تجدد الخلايا فيما منحت جائزة الفيزياء الثلاثاء الى البريطانيين ديفيد ثاوليس ودانكن هالداين ومايكل كوسترليتس لاعمالهم النظرية حول المادة “الغريبة” التي يتوقع ان تكون لها تطبيقات في مجال صناعة الحواسيب الفائقة القوة.

وتمنح الجمعة جائزة نوبل للسلام في اوسلو فيما يكشف الاثنين عن الفائز بجائزة الاقتصاد. وتختتم جائزة الاداب موسم نوبل للعام 2016 الخميس في 13 تشرين الاول/اكتوبر

Brit Sir Fraser Stoddart is among the trio awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for creating the worlds smallest machines

  • British-born Sir Fraser Stoddart, Frenchman Jean-Pierre Sauvage, and Dutch scientist Bernard Ben Feringa have split the prize three ways
  • The award is in recognition of their work on molecular machines
  • These are molecules which can perform a task when energy is added
  • The machines theyve created include a molecular motor, lift and nanocar

 

This years Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded for work dating back to 1983, on the design of the smallest machines in the world. 

British-born Sir Fraser Stoddart, Frenchman Jean-Pierre Sauvage, and Dutch scientist Bernard Ben Feringa have split the prize three ways for their invention and development of molecular machines.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said molecular machines will most likely be used in the development of things such as new materials, sensors and energy storage systems.

Scroll down for video 

French scientist Jean-Pierre Sauvage
Sir James Fraser Stoddart
Bernard Feringa

Jean-Pierre Sauvage (left), Sir James Fraser Stoddart (centre) and Bernard Feringa (right) have split the prize three ways, for their work developing new synthetic strategies for making the smallest machines in the world 

MOLECULAR MACHINES

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded for the design and synthesis of molecular machines.

Molecular machines are tiny molecules, a thousand times thinner than a strand of hair, with controllable movements, which can perform a task when energy is added. 

These machines will most likely be used in the development of things like new materials, sensors and energy storage systems.

They have developed molecules with controllable movements, which can perform a task when energy is added, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said in a statement, awarding the 8 million Swedish Krona ($931,000/£732,004) prize. 

The winning paper was entitled for the design and synthesis of molecular machines. 

Molecular machines are tiny molecules with controllable movements, which can perform a task when energy is added.

The machines are a thousand times thinner than a strand of hair. 

They will most likely be used in the development of things such as new materials, sensors and energy storage systems. 

Another application of these machines could be delivering drugs within the human body, for example, by applying them directly to cancer cells

 

This years Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded for work dating back to 1983, on the design of the smallest machines in the world. 

British-born Sir Fraser Stoddart, Frenchman Jean-Pierre Sauvage, and Dutch scientist Bernard Ben Feringa have split the prize three ways for their invention and development of molecular machines.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said molecular machines will most likely be used in the development of things such as new materials, sensors and energy storage systems.

Scroll down for video 

French scientist Jean-Pierre Sauvage
Sir James Fraser Stoddart
Bernard Feringa

Jean-Pierre Sauvage (left), Sir James Fraser Stoddart (centre) and Bernard Feringa (right) have split the prize three ways, for their work developing new synthetic strategies for making the smallest machines in the world 

MOLECULAR MACHINES

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded for the design and synthesis of molecular machines.

Molecular machines are tiny molecules, a thousand times thinner than a strand of hair, with controllable movements, which can perform a task when energy is added. 

These machines will most likely be used in the development of things like new materials, sensors and energy storage systems.

They have developed molecules with controllable movements, which can perform a task when energy is added, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said in a statement, awarding the 8 million Swedish Krona ($931,000/£732,004) prize. 

The winning paper was entitled for the design and synthesis of molecular machines. 

Molecular machines are tiny molecules with controllable movements, which can perform a task when energy is added.

The machines are a thousand times thinner than a strand of hair. 

They will most likely be used in the development of things such as new materials, sensors and energy storage systems. 

Another application of these machines could be delivering drugs within the human body, for example, by applying them directly to cancer cells.

 
 
 

The first step towards building a molecular machine was taken by Jean-Pierre Sauvage in 1983, when he linked two ring-shaped molecules together to form a chain. 

Jean-Pierre Sauvage was born in 1944 in Paris, France. 

He is now emeritus professor at the University of Strasbourg and director of research emeritus at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS).

The second step was taken by Fraser Stoddart in 1991, when he developed a molecule called rotaxane.

Sir Fraser Stoddart was born in 1942 in Edinburgh and is currently affiliated to the Northwestern University in Illinois.

The three winners are pictured on the screen behind (left to right) Sara Snogerup Linse (Chairman), Goran K Hansson, Permanent Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and Professor Olof Ramstrom

The three winners are pictured on the screen behind (left to right) Sara Snogerup Linse (Chairman), Goran K Hansson, Permanent Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and Professor Olof Ramstrom

Jean-Pierre Sauvage first linked two ring-shaped molecules together to form a chain in 1983. Normally, molecules are joined by strong bonds in which the atoms share electrons, but in the chain they were instead linked by a freer mechanical bond

Jean-Pierre Sauvage first linked two ring-shaped molecules together to form a chain in 1983. Normally, molecules are joined by strong bonds in which the atoms share electrons, but in the chain they were instead linked by a freer mechanical bond

The second step in creating molecular machines was taken by Fraser Stoddart in 1991, when he developed something known as a rotaxane. He threaded a molecular ring onto a thin molecular axle and showed the ring was able to move along the axle (diagram pictured) 

The second step in creating molecular machines was taken by Fraser Stoddart in 1991, when he developed something known as a rotaxane. He threaded a molecular ring onto a thin molecular axle and showed the ring was able to move along the axle (diagram pictured) 

THE 33-YEAR JOURNEY

The first step towards building a molecular machine was taken by Jean-Pierre Sauvage in 1983, when he linked two ring-shaped molecules together to form a chain.

Normally, molecules are joined by strong covalent bonds in which the atoms share electrons, but in the chain they were instead linked by a freer mechanical bond. 

For a machine to be able to perform a task it must consist of parts that can move relative to each other -the two interlocked rings fulfilled exactly this requirement.

The second step was taken by Fraser Stoddart in 1991, when he developed a rotaxane. 

He threaded a molecular ring onto a thin molecular axle and showed the ring was able to move along the axle. 

He developed a variety of machines based on rotaxanes including a molecular lift, a molecular muscle and a molecule-based computer chip.

Bernard Feringa was the first person to develop a molecular motor. In 1999 he developed a molecular rotor blade that could spin continually in the same direction.

I could hardly believe that it worked. Bernard Feringa when they had built their first molecular machine. 

Using molecular motors, he has rotated a glass cylinder 10,000 times bigger than the motor and also designed a nanocar.

Bernard Feringa was born in 1951 in Barger-Compascuum, the Netherlands. 

He is a professor in organic chemistry at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands.

Professor Feringa was the first person to develop a molecular motor, in 1999.

The molecular motor is at the same stage as the electric motor was in the 1830s, when scientists displayed various spinning cranks and wheels, unaware that they would lead to electric trains, washing machines, fans and food processors, the jury said when announcing the winners. 

Fraser Stoddart said of his corecipients: Its not just a scientific family, its almost a biological family; were very close to each other.

Between them, the trio has created a range of tiny machines throughout their careers.

When Jean-Pierre Sauvage first linked two ring-shaped molecules together to form a chain, it was a breakthrough.

Normally, molecules are joined by strong covalent bonds in which the atoms share electrons, but in the chain they were instead linked by a freer mechanical bond. 

For a machine to be able to perform a task it must consist of parts that can move relative to each other -the two interlocked rings fulfilled exactly this requirement. 

In 1991, Fraser Stoddart threaded a molecular ring onto a thin molecular axle and showed the ring was able to move along the axle.

He developed a variety of machines based on this molecule, called rotaxane, including a molecular lift, a molecular muscle and a molecule-based computer chip.

French scientist Jean-Pierre Sauvage,  professor emeritus at the University of Strasbourg and director of research emeritus at Frances National Center for Scientific Research, speaks on the phone at the University of Strasbourg, France, after the announcement

French scientist Jean-Pierre Sauvage, professor emeritus at the University of Strasbourg and director of research emeritus at Frances National Center for Scientific Research, speaks on the phone at the University of Strasbourg, France, after the announcement

Using molecular motors, Bernard Feringa has rotated a glass cylinder 10,000 times bigger than the motor and also designed a nanocar (pictured)

Using molecular motors, Bernard Feringa has rotated a glass cylinder 10,000 times bigger than the motor and also designed a nanocar (pictured)

THE WINNERS 

Jean-Pierre Sauvage was born in 1944 in Paris, France. He is emeritus professor at the University of Strasbourg and director of research emeritus at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS).

Sir Fraser Stoddart was born in 1942 in Edinburgh. He is currently affiliated to the Northwestern University in Illinois.

Bernard Feringa was born in 1951 in Barger-Compascuum, the Netherlands. He is a professor in organic chemistry at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands.

In 1999 Bernard Feringa developed a molecular rotor blade that could spin continually in the same direction.

Using molecular motors, he has rotated a glass cylinder 10,000 times bigger than the motor and also designed a nanocar.

Given that it is so small, the only real ways the nanocar had any visual similarities to a car is that it has four wheels and a bare-bones internal framework.

The car is powered by electrical pulses that respond to millivolts of energy. 

For every half-turn of its wheels, the car needed another jolt of energy. 

Because of its high energy requirements and minuscule size, its no surprise that the first journey was only six nanometres.

Even though the actual size of the project may be smaller than the average human eye, it was a massive breakthrough for scientists in the field of nanotechnology. 

British-born scientists, Fraser Stoddart poses for a portrait in the lab at Northwestern University in Chicago

British-born scientists, Fraser Stoddart poses for a portrait in the lab at Northwestern University in Chicago

Ben Feringa is pictured in 2013 at the University of Groningen during one of his experiments

Ben Feringa is pictured in 2013 at the University of Groningen during one of his experiments

Stoddard developed a variety of machines based on rotaxanes including a molecular lift (pictured), a molecular muscle and a molecule-based computer chip

Stoddard developed a variety of machines based on rotaxanes including a molecular lift (pictured), a molecular muscle and a molecule-based computer chip

THE 2016 NOBEL PRIZES 

The first, the award in medicine or physiology, was given to Japanese biologist Yoshinori Ohsumi on Monday for his work exploring autophagy - the process by which cells recycle their own contents.

Autophagy - which comes from the Greek meaning self-eating - is the process by which cells effectively eat their own contents, breaking them down into their building blocks so they can be used elsewhere.

The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to three Brits for their research into the secrets of exotic matter.

The prize was given in recognition of work that opened the door to a mysterious world in which matter can assume unusual states unknown in nature. 

This years Chemistry Nobel Prize was awarded to the trio that developed molecular machines.

Molecular machines are tiny molecules with controllable movements, which can perform a task when energy is added. 

On Friday, the Nobel Peace prize will be announced in Oslo.

The 2016 Nobel Laureates in Chemistry have taken molecular systems out of equilibriums stalemate and into energy-filled states in which their movements can be controlled.  

Stoddarts daughter, Alison Stoddart, is also a chemist and said she was called by her father and that he was absolutely ecstatic, absolutely delighted.

He was a little bit in shock, obviously early in the morning (in Chicago). 

He was very happy about the people he won the prize with, said Alison Stoddart.

She noted Jean-Pierre Sauvage is a close family friend and colleague in particular.

As a chemist, Alison Stoddart, said she was pleased to see the work recognized. 

Its just really lovely, its fundamental chemistry; its synthesis in making these machines... What it could make in years to come is very exciting. 

She described the winners as impassioned chemists.

They just make really interesting molecules and they love doing it and its just really nice they won together, she said.

A total of 171 individuals have won the Nobel Prize in chemistry since 1901.

But out of these, only four were women: Marie Curie, Irène Joliot-Curie, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin and Ada Yonath.

The accolade is the biggest international honour recognised, and was created by 19th-century Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel. Pictured is the gold Nobel Prize medal awarded to the late novelist Gabriel Garcia Marquez, in Bogota, Colombia

The accolade is the biggest international honour recognised, and was created by 19th-century Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel. Pictured is the gold Nobel Prize medal awarded to the late novelist Gabriel Garcia Marquez, in Bogota, Colombia

Professor Olof Ramstrom (right), member of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry, explains the award on the screen, beside Permanent Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Goran K Hansson (centre) and Professor of Physical Chemistry, Sara Snogerup Linse (left), Chairman of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry

Professor Olof Ramstrom (right), member of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry, explains the award on the screen, beside Permanent Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Goran K Hansson (centre) and Professor of Physical Chemistry, Sara Snogerup Linse (left), Chairman of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is the third Nobel award announced this week.

The first, the award in medicine or physiology, was given to Japanese biologist Yoshinori Ohsumi on Monday for his work exploring autophagy - the process by which cells recycle their own contents.

Autophagy - which comes from the Greek meaning self-eating - is the process by which cells effectively eat their own contents, breaking them down into their building blocks so they can be used elsewhere.

Yesterday, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to three Brits for their research into the secrets of exotic matter.

The prize was given in recognition of work that opened the door to a mysterious world in which matter can assume unusual states unknown in nature. 

On Friday, the Nobel Peace prize will be announced in Oslo. 

Jean-Pierre Sauvage is now emeritus professor at the University of Strasbourg and director of research emeritus at the French National Center for Scientific Research

Jean-Pierre Sauvage is now emeritus professor at the University of Strasbourg and director of research emeritus at the French National Center for Scientific Research

 

كلمة التحرير كتاب واراء مختارات من الصحافة حول العالم لبنان سورية صحة بيئه ابراج نهفة اليوم إعلانات تصويت
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القائمة البريدية
البريد الالكتروني

مجرذ نملة ..... ازئروا رررر:بورتريه عائليه والاب يشخر مفاجآت الحفل العالمي للعام 2018:الفائز الأكبر سناً في التاريخ وأول ممثل ذي بشرة سوداء يفوز بالأوسكار.. ترامب يهاجم أوبرا وينفري: خوضي الانتخابات حتى أفضحك وتُهزمي كالآخرين! ترامب في يهاجم أوبرا وينفري: خوضي الانتخابات حتى أفضحك وتُهزمي كالآخرين! ترامب في يهاجم أوبرا وينفري: خوضي الانتخابات حتى أفضحك وتُهزمي كالآخرين! اقسى صور العام  إذا كنت أقل وسامةً وتتصنَّع  13 سبباً نفسياً تفسر وقوع الآخرين في حبِّك متحف يرفض طلب ترامب استعارة لوحة لـ"فان غوخ" ويعرض عليه بدلاً منها مرحاض  صورة طائرة التجسس الاميركيه الاحدث