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سلفي من المريخ : ناسا ترسل مسبار للدراسة بمليار $ :لماذا..؟

رئيس التحرير
2018.12.19 01:07

 

المسبار إنسايت أرسل أول صورة له من على سطح المريخ بعد دقائق من وصوله
نجحت وكالة الفضاء الأمريكية (ناسا) في إيصال مركبة فضائية إلى المريخ، لتهبط سالمة على سطح الكوكب الأحمر بعد سبع دقائق من دخولها مجاله الجوي، لدراسة اعماق الكوكب وتكوينه الداخلي.
وتهدف رحلة المسبار "إنسايت" إلى دراسة العمق الداخلي لهذا العالم مما يجعل المريخ الكوكب الوحيد، بعد الأرض، الذي يخضع للدراسة والاستكشاف بهذه الطريقة.
وانفصل المسبار "إنسايت" عن الصاروخ، الذي حمله إلى المريخ وهبط على السطح في تمام الساعة 7:53 مساء بتوقيت غرينتش.
وظلت حالة القلق في المحطة الأرضية حتى أرسل المسبار تحديثات عن هبوطه بسلام.
وتنفس القائمون على المهمة في مختبر الدفع النفاث في كاليفورنيا (JPL)، الصعداء وهتفوا بسعادة عندما تأكدوا من هبوط المسبار "إنسايت" بسلام على سطح المريخ.
واحتفل المدير العام لوكالة ناسا، جيمس بريدينستين، بما سماه "يوما رائعا". وقال للصحفيين إن الرئيس دونالد ترامب قدم تهانيه.
وقال مدير مختبر الدفع النفاث، مايك واتكينز، إن هذا النجاح يجب أن يُذكر الجميع بأنه "لكي نطبق العلوم يجب أن نكون جريئين وعلينا أن نكون مستكشفين".
 
 
رحلة المسبار إنسايت إلى المريخ
 
 
 
علماء ناسا ابتهجوا بنجاح الرحلة وينتظرون بدء المهمة العلمية لدراسة أعماق الكوكب الأحمر
واستقر "إنسايت" حاليا على سهل منبسط واسع يعرف باسم Elysium Planitia، بالقرب من خط إستواء الكوكب الأحمر. وقبل الهبوط، وصفتها ناسا بأنها "أكبر ساحة على سطح المريخ".
وجاءت أول صورة عن هذه النقطة سريعا وفي غضون دقائق من هبوط المسبار، وكانت تغطي المساحة المحيطة به.
تم التقاط الصورة من خلال غطاء العدسة الشفاف لكاميرا موضوعة على الجانب السفلي من المركبة. غطى الغبار المنهمر في المنحدر الكثير من المشهد، ووكان بالإمكان تمييز صخرة صغيرة، وأحد أقدام المسبار كما ظهرت السماء في الأفق.
ومن المنتظر التقاط صورا أفضل في الأيام القادمة.
 
 

ماذا حدث أثناء الهبوط؟
 
 
 
يستطيع المسبار البقاء على سطح المريخ القاسي من خلال نشر الألواح الشمسية التي تم طيها أثناء الهبوط
مثل جميع محاولات الهبوط السابقة على المريخ، كانت رحلة "إنسايت" نحو سطح المريخ عملية مضطربة، مثل المحاولة الأولى التي جرت عام 2012.
وكان المسبار يرسل بيانات عن تقدمه نحو السطح في كل مرحلة وفي كل متر نحو الأمام.
ودخل "إنسايت" إلى الغلاف الجوي بشكل أسرع من الرصاصة عالية السرعة، مستخدما مزيج من درع الحرارة، والمظلة، والصواريخ العاكسة للوصول إلى عملية هبوط لطيفة.
ويستطيع المسبار البقاء على سطح المريخ القاسي من خلال نشر الألواح الشمسية، التي تم طيها أثناء الهبوط، وستعمل على إمداده بالطاقة، لتشغيل أنظمته وتسخين المعدات في درجات حرارة التجمد على الكوكب الأحمر.
وبعد التأكد من انتهاء كل هذه المخاوف، سوف تبدأ ناسا التفكير في المهمة العلمية للمسبار.
ومن أحد الإنجازات الكبيرة في مهمة هذا المسبار الدور الذي لعبه القمران الاصطناعيان الصغيران "بحجم حقيبة" اللذان تم إرسالهما إلى المريخ بالتزامن مع هبوط المسبار.
كانت هذه المركبات الفضائية الصغيرة المسماة "ماركو أ" و"ب" هي التي تنقل إشارات المسبار إلى الأرض أثناء الدخول إلى السطح. وبلغت تكلفة المركبتان أقل من 20 مليون دولار .
 
 
التقطت الأقمار الصناعية الصغيرة صورة للمريخ بالتزامن مع هبوط المسبار
وتأكيدا لقدراتهما، التقطت الأقمار الصناعية الصغيرة صورة للمريخ.
 
وقال آندي كلش، كبير مهندسي المركبات ماركو "بعد أن نجحت في نقل جميع البيانات من إنسايت طوال الرحلة، اختراق الغلاف الجوي للمريخ ثم الهبوط، فما نراه هو صورة تم التقاطها على مسافة 4700 ميل من المريخ".
 
 

ما هو الجديد في مهمة "إنسايت"؟
 
 
سيكون هذا أول مهمة لتكريس أبحاثها لفهم المناطق الداخلية للمريخ. يريد العلماء معرفة كيف نشأ المريخ بداية من القلب والنواة الداخلية وحتى القشرة الخارجية. وسيقوم المسبار بثلاث تجارب رئيسية لتحقيق هذا الهدف.
الأولى عبارة عن مجموعة من أجهزة قياس الزلازل الفرنسية البريطانية التي سترفع إلى السطح للاستماع إلى "الهزات على المريخ". وسوف تكشف هذه الاهتزازات أين تكون طبقات الصخور وتكوينها وعناصرها.
وسوف يخترق نظام "مول" الألماني حوالي 5 أمتار في الأرض ليقيس درجة الحرارة. وهو ما سيكشف كيفية حدوث النشاط داخل كوكب المريخ.
 
 

استكشاف قلب كوكب المريخ ومعرفة مكوناته وكيف نشأ ستسهم في فهم النظام الشمسي
 
 
 
وستستخدم التجربة الثالثة إشارات الراديو لتحدد بدقة كيف يتمايل الكوكب على محوره. وتصف عالمة المشروع سوزان سمريكار، ما يجري بأنه مثل أخذ بيضة نيئة وبيضة مطبوخة وتدويرهما حول محورهما، فكلتاهما سوف تتمايل بشكل مختلف بسبب توزيع السائل في الداخل".
وتقول "اليوم لا ندري حقيقة أن لب المريخ سائل أو صلب، وحجم لب الكوكب، وهو ما سيقدمه لنا إنسايت".
 

لماذا نحتاج أن نعرف هذا؟
 
 
يدرك العلماء جيدا مما يتكون باطن الأرض وكيف تكون، ولديهم بعض النماذج الجيدة لوصف نشوء هذه البنية في ولادة النظام الشمسي قبل أكثر من 4.5 مليار سنة.
وتمثل الأرض مصدرا واحدا للبيانات، لكن المريخ سيمثل مصدرا آخر للباحثين حول كيفية تجميع كوكب صخري وتطوره عبر الزمن.
وقال بروس بانيرت، كبير العلماء العاملين في مشروع "إنسايت": "التفاصيل الدقيقة لكيفية تطور الكواكب هي ما نعتقد أنه يصنع الفرق بين مكان مثل الأرض وكوكب الزهرة، حيث يحترق الإنسان في ثوان، ومكان أخر مثل المريخ حيث هناك التجمد حتى الموت".
 
بالصور
رحلة المسبار إنسايت إلى المريخ

رحلة المسبار إنسايت إلى المريخمصدر الصورةNASA

رحلة المسبار إنسايت إلى المريخمصدر الصورةNASA

رحلة المسبار إنسايت إلى المريخ

 

 

 

NASA, which is based in Washington, DC, released a photograph taken by its Insight spacecraft shortly after it landed on Mars, showing part of the probe and the Martian surface in the distance. A

 

Nasa satellite orbiting the red planet relayed images of the $1 billion (£0.78 billion) spacecraft from its landing site, known as Elysium Planitia, back to Earth at 8:30pm EST (1:30am GMT). The image

 

signals that InSights solar panels, known as solar arrays, have now successfully opened, meaning it is able to collect sunlight and recharge its batteries each day

 

NASAs latest interplanetary probe has sent its first selfie from the barren surface of Mars, after it successfully reached the planet following a seven month trip through space.

The US space agency released a photograph taken by its InSight spacecraft shortly after it landed, showing part of the probe and the Martian surface in the distance.

A Nasa satellite orbiting the red planet relayed images of the $1 billion (£0.78 billion) spacecraft from its landing site, known as Elysium Planitia, back to Earth at 8:30pm EST (1:30am GMT) on Monday.

The successful transfer confirmed that InSights solar panels, known as solar arrays, have now successfully opened, meaning it is able to collect sunlight and recharge its batteries each day.

NASAs latest interplanetary probe has sent its first selfie from the barren surface of Mars. The photograph shows part of the probe and the Martian surface in the distance

NASAs latest interplanetary probe has sent its first selfie from the barren surface of Mars. The photograph shows part of the probe and the Martian surface in the distance

Tom Hoffman, InSights project manager at Nasas Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said: The InSight team can rest a little easier tonight now that we know the spacecraft solar arrays are deployed and recharging the batteries.

Its been a long day for the team.

But tomorrow begins an exciting new chapter for InSight: surface operations and the beginning of the instrument deployment phase.

Using InSights robotic arm, which has a camera attached, the mission team will be able to take more photographs in the coming days, Nasa said.

This will help engineers assess where to install the spacecrafts scientific instruments, which will begin sending back data to Earth within two to three months.

The InSight lander touched down on Mars just before 3pm EST (8pm GMT) on Monday, surviving the so-called seven minutes of terror, a tricky landing phase for the robotic probe.

This image shows some of the instruments visible in the selfie image sent back to Earth by InSight early Tuesday morning

A Nasa satellite orbiting the red planet relayed images of InSight from its landing site, known as Elysium Planitia, back to Earth at 8:30pm EST (1:30am GMT). MarCO-B, one of two experimental Mars Cube One (MarCO) CubeSats, took this image of Mars from about 4,700 miles (6,000 kilometers) away during its flyby of the Red Planet on November 26, 2018

A Nasa satellite orbiting the red planet relayed images of InSight from its landing site, known as Elysium Planitia, back to Earth at 8:30pm EST (1:30am GMT). MarCO-B, one of two experimental Mars Cube One (MarCO) CubeSats, took this image of Mars from about 4,700 miles (6,000 kilometers) away during its flyby of the Red Planet on November 26, 2018

It was travelling at 13,200 mph (21,200 kph) when it entered the planets thin atmosphere which provides little friction to slow down.

American space agency Nasas two-year mission aims to shine new light on how the Red Planet was formed and its deep structure, by mapping its core, crust and mantle.

InSight arrived on Marss Elysium Planitia area north of its equator, described as an ideal spot for its flat, rockless surface.

It was NASAs eighth successful landing at Mars since the 1976 Viking probes, and the first in six years. NASAs Curiosity rover, which arrived in 2012, is still on the move on Mars. 

Only 40 per cent of missions to the planet have succeeded and all have been US-led. 

This image shows some of the instruments loaded onto NASAs InSight lander, which touched down on the red planet on Monday

This image shows some of the instruments loaded onto NASAs InSight lander, which touched down on the red planet on Monday

The successful transfer confirms that InSights solar panels, known as solar arrays, have now successfully opened (artists impression), meaning it is able to collect sunlight and recharge its batteries each day

The successful transfer confirms that InSights solar panels, known as solar arrays, have now successfully opened (artists impression), meaning it is able to collect sunlight and recharge its batteries each day

InSights first picture: The Mars lander sent home its first photo (pictured above) minutes after its nerve-wracking descent to the red planet on Monday. The cameras protective cover was specked with scientists believe is Martian dust

InSights first picture: The Mars lander sent home its first photo (pictured above) minutes after its nerve-wracking descent to the red planet on Monday. The cameras protective cover was specked with scientists believe is Martian dust

The InSight lander travelled through space for six months, but its long journey ultimately boiled down to a nail-biting few minutes on Monday afternoon. Many Nasa engineers were in tears when landing was finally confirmed

The InSight lander travelled through space for six months, but its long journey ultimately boiled down to a nail-biting few minutes on Monday afternoon. Many Nasa engineers were in tears when landing was finally confirmed

Scientists at NASAs Jet Propulsion laboratory in California could be seen jumping and cheering in the control room as they marked the successful landing

Scientists at NASAs Jet Propulsion laboratory in California could be seen jumping and cheering in the control room as they marked the successful landing

Minutes after touching down on Mars, NASAs InSight spacecraft sent back a nice and dirty snapshot of the red planet.

The photo revealed a mostly smooth and sandy terrain around the spacecraft with only one sizable rock visible.

Im very, very happy that it looks like we have an incredibly safe and boring landing location, project manager Tom Hoffman said after Mondays touchdown. Thats exactly what we were going for.

A better image came hours later and more are expected in the days ahead, after the dust covers come off the landers cameras.

The spacecraft arrived at Mars after a perilous, supersonic plunge through its red skies that took just six minutes.

InSight was travelling at 13,200 mph (21,200 kph) when it entered the planets thin atmosphere which provides little friction to slow down. Pictured is artists impression of the lander descending towards the surface of Mars on its parachute

InSight was travelling at 13,200 mph (21,200 kph) when it entered the planets thin atmosphere which provides little friction to slow down. Pictured is artists impression of the lander descending towards the surface of Mars on its parachute

InSight touched down in a region known as Elysium Planitia. Its location can be seen in the map above, not far from the landing site of the 2012 Curiosity mission, the last NASA probe to land on Mars

Touchdown confirmed! a flight controller called out just before 3:00 pm EST (8:00pm GMT), setting off jubilation among scientists at NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, who had waited in white-knuckle suspense for word to reach across 100 million miles (160 million kilometres) of space. 

Because of the distance between Earth and Mars, it took eight minutes for confirmation to arrive, relayed by a pair of tiny satellites named Wall-E and Eva that had been trailing InSight throughout the six-month, 300-million-mile (482-million-kilometer) journey.

Flawless, declared JPLs chief engineer, Rob Manning. Sometimes things work out in your favor.

InSight, a $1 billion (£0.78 billion) international project, includes a German mechanical mole that will burrow down 16 feet (5 meters) to measure Mars internal heat.

The first instrument InSight demonstrated was its camera - albeit with the lens cap still on. ‘My first picture on #Mars!’ the InSight account tweeted after landing, alongside a grainy photo of a reddish brown background. The space agency released a high resolution version not long after

The first instrument InSight demonstrated was its camera - albeit with the lens cap still on. My first picture on #Mars! the InSight account tweeted after landing, alongside a grainy photo of a reddish brown background. The space agency released a high resolution version not long after

INSIGHTS THREE KEY INSTRUMENTS

The lander that could reveal how Earth was formed: InSight lander set for Mars landing on november 26th

The lander that could reveal how Earth was formed: InSight lander set for Mars landing on november 26th

Three key instruments will allow the InSight lander to take the pulse of the red planet:

Seismometer: The InSight lander carries a seismometer, SEIS, that listens to the pulse of Mars. 

The seismometer records the waves traveling through the interior structure of a planet. 

Studying seismic waves tells us what might be creating the waves. 

On Mars, scientists suspect that the culprits may be marsquakes, or meteorites striking the surface. 

Heat probe: InSights heat flow probe, HP3, burrows deeper than any other scoops, drills or probes on Mars before it. 

It will investigate how much heat is still flowing out of Mars. 

Radio antennas: Like Earth, Mars wobbles a little as it rotates around its axis. 

To study this, two radio antennas, part of the RISE instrument, track the location of the lander very precisely. 

This helps scientists test the planets reflexes and tells them how the deep interior structure affects the planets motion around the Sun.

Pictured: An artists impression of Nasas InSight lander about to touch down on Mars
This composite photo was created from over 100 images of Mars taken by Viking Orbiters in the 1970s
 

Experts hope the mission will be the first to unlock geological secrets of the planets hidden core, using a probe to dig 16ft (5m) beneath the surface. Pictured: An artists impression of Nasas InSight lander (left) about to touch down on Mars (right)

The lander also has a French seismometer for measuring quakes, if they exist on our smaller, geologically calmer neighbour as well as three UK-made seismometer instruments.

Another experiment will calculate Mars wobble to reveal the makeup of the planets core.

Late Monday, NASA reported the spacecrafts vital solar arrays were open and recharging its batteries.

Over the next few sols - or Martian days of 24 hours, 39½ minutes - flight controllers will assess the health of InSights all-important robot arm and its science instruments.

A seismometer containing sensors designed and made at Imperial College in London and tested at Oxford University will also examine the impact of earthquakes and meteorite strikes. Artists impression pictured

A seismometer containing sensors designed and made at Imperial College in London and tested at Oxford University will also examine the impact of earthquakes and meteorite strikes. Artists impression pictured

NASA TV coverage was shown on the giant screen in New Yorks Times Square, where crowds huddled under umbrellas in the rain

NASA TV coverage was shown on the giant screen in New Yorks Times Square, where crowds huddled under umbrellas in the rain

It will take months to set up and fine-tune the instruments, and lead scientist Bruce Banerdt said he doesnt expect to start getting a stream of solid data until late next spring.

Banerdt called InSights first snapshot of the surface the first bit of science, albeit nice and dirty. He said the image would be cleaned and the black specks would disappear.

That photo came from a camera low on the lander. Late Monday, NASA released a clean photo taken by a higher camera that showed part of the lander and the landscape.

The 800-pound (360-kilogram) InSight is stationary and will operate from the same spot for the next two years, the duration of a Martian year.

NASA went with its old, straightforward approach this time, using a parachute and braking engines to get InSights speed from 12,300 mph (19,800 kph) when it pierced the Martian atmosphere, about 77 miles (114 kilometers) up, to 5 mph (8kph) at touchdown.

The danger was that the spacecraft could burn up in the atmosphere or bounce off it.

Many Mars-bound spacecraft launched by the US, Russia and other countries have been lost or destroyed over the years, with a success rate of just 40 per cent, not counting InSight.

The InSight probe should enter the Martian atmosphere at 12,300mph before an array of 12 thrusters attempts to slow it down to 5mph for a safe touchdown. An artists impression of its Mars entry is pictured
 

The InSight probe entered the Martian atmosphere at 12,300mph before an array of 12 thrusters slowed it down to 5mph for a safe touchdown. An artists impression of its Mars entry is pictured

The three-legged InSight settled on the western side of Elysium Planitia, the plain that NASA was aiming for.

Museums, planetariums and libraries across the US held viewing parties to watch the events unfold at JPL.

NASA TV coverage was also shown on the giant screen in New Yorks Times Square, where crowds huddled under umbrellas in the rain.

What an amazing day for our country, said Jim Bridenstine, presiding over his first Mars landing as NASAs boss.

Mars well-preserved interior provides a snapshot of what Earth may have looked like following its formation 4.5 billion years ago, according to Banerdt.

While Earth is active seismically, Mars decided to rest on its laurels after it formed, he said.

InSight arrived on Marss Elysium Planitia area north of its equator, described as an ideal spot for its flat, rockless surface. It is the first attempt to reach Mars in six years (file photo) 

InSight arrived on Marss Elysium Planitia area north of its equator, described as an ideal spot for its flat, rockless surface. It is the first attempt to reach Mars in six years (file photo) 

By examining and mapping the interior of Mars, scientists hope to learn why the rocky planets in our solar system turned out so different and why Earth became a haven for life.

Still, there are no life detectors aboard InSight. NASAs next mission, the Mars 2020 rover, will prowl for rocks that might contain evidence of ancient life.

The question of whether life ever existed in Mars wet, watery past is what keeps driving NASA back to the fourth rock from the sun.

After InSight landed, the two experimental satellites zoomed past Mars, their main job done. One took one last photo of the red planet that the satellites chief engineer, Andy Klesh, titled farewell to InSight ... farewell to Mars. 

كلمة التحرير كتاب واراء مختارات من الصحافة حول العالم لبنان سورية صحة بيئه ابراج نهفة اليوم إعلانات تصويت
بانتشار الكتب الالكترونية في العالم هل ما زلت تفضل قراءة الكتب الورقية؟


القائمة البريدية
البريد الالكتروني

سعد لمجرد يطرح أحدث أغنياته “بدك إيه”بالفيديو.. استراحة "شاي ونرجيلة" على بعد أمتار من جيش الإحتلال مضمون الصورة التي عرضها بشار الجعفري في مؤتمره الصحفي؟ خطاط سوري يحيك نسخة قرآن من القماش في 12 عاماً المناولة المقدسة قد تسبب عدوى الانفلونزا  بعد الألماسة الوردية  50 مليون $ تفتح "زهرة تيتانيوم" عملاقة في إحدى مزارع إندونيسيا  انتخاب أول مثلي ومثلية ومسلمتان ولاجئة في مجلس النواب ولعضوية الكونغرس الأميركي..إحداهما فلسطينيه والاخرى ترتدي الحجاب  صلاح بن جمال خاشقجي يلقي اللوم بمقتل والده على ولي العهد بحضور الملك خلال لقائهم هجرة الجنوب الى الشمال وترامب يغلق الحدود وويستدعي الجيش