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"فوياجر 2" يخترق حدود المنظومة الشمسية كثاني جسم من صنع الإنسان عبر التاريخ حسب ناسا

رئيس التحرير
2019.01.15 21:59

 


 أعلنت وكالة ناسا أن مسبار "فوياجر 2" غادر النظام الشمسي، ودخل الفضاء بين النجمي، ويصبح بذلك ثاني جسم من صنع الإنسان يفعل ذلك عبر التاريخ.

 

وخرج مسبار "فوياجر 2" من الغلاف الشمسي (heliopause)، وهو عبارة عن فقاعة عملاقة من الحقول المغناطيسية والجسيمات المشحونة كهربائيا المحيطة بالشمس، في 5 نوفمبر الماضي، وقد تأكد العلماء من حدوث هذه العملية بعد دراسة بيانات الأجهزة المثبتة على متن المركبة الفضائية التابعة لوكالة الفضاء الأمريكية ناسا.

 

ويقدر حاليا أن يكون المسبار على بعد 11 مليار ميل من الأرض، حيث ما يزال فريق " فوياجر 2" قادرا على التواصل مع المركبة، على الرغم من أن الأمر يستغرق حوالي 16.5 ساعة لنقل المعلومات من المسبار إلى الأرض.

وستفصح وكالة ناسا عن النتائج التي توصلت إليها في مؤتمر صحفي، في تمام الساعة الثامنة صباحا بتوقيت المحيط الهادئ (الساعة 19 بتوقيت موسكو/الساعة 17 بتوقيت غرينيتش)، اليوم 10 ديسمبر، في اجتماع الاتحاد الجيوفيزيائي الأمريكي (AGU) في واشنطن.

وقد زودت أداة تجربة علوم البلازما (PLS)، التابعة للمركبة الفضائية، وكالة ناسا ببيانات رئيسة أكدت أنها تجاوزت الحد الفاصل للغلاف الشمسي، حيث تلتقي الرياح الشمسية الساخنة بالوسط البارد والكثيف بين النجوم.

واكتشف العلماء انخفاضا حادا في جزيئات الرياح الشمسية، ولم تلتقط المركبة أي تدفق للرياح الشمسية منذ ذلك الحين.

وعلى الرغم من أن مسبار "فوياجر 1" قد عبر العتبة ذاتها في عام 2012، إلا أنه لم يكن مزودا بأداة "PLS".

وتحمل المركبة الفضائية "فوياجر 2"  أدوات مهمة أخرى، يمكنها إجراء عمليات رصد غير مسبوقة في هذه الحدود وما وراءها.

وغادرت المركبة الفضائية الأرض في عام 1977 في مهمة لدراسة الكواكب الخارجية، بما في ذلك كوكب المشتري ونبتون. ومنذ الانتهاء من هذه المهمة الأولية، كانت تدرس المجرى الخارجي لنظامنا الشمسي.

ومن المتوقع أن يستمر المسبار في إرسال إشارات الراديو بينما يستكشف الفضاء بين النجمي حتى عام 2025.

 

NASAs Voyager 2 probe becomes the second man-made object to leave our solar system

  • NASA s Voyager 2 probe has now exited the heliosphere
  • This is the protective bubble of particles and magnetic fields created by the sun
  • News was revealed at meeting of American Geophysical Union in Washington

For the second time in history, a human-made object has reached the space between the stars. 

NASAs Voyager 2 probe has now exited the heliosphere – the protective bubble of particles and magnetic fields created by the sun. 

The news was revealed at a meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in Washington. 

For the second time in history, a human-made object has reached the space between the stars. The news was revealed at a meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in Washington

For the second time in history, a human-made object has reached the space between the stars. The news was revealed at a meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in Washington

NASA s probe has now exited the heliosphere ¿ the protective bubble of particles and magnetic fields created by the sun

NASA s probe has now exited the heliosphere – the protective bubble of particles and magnetic fields created by the sun

Comparing data from different instruments aboard the trailblazing spacecraft, mission scientists determined the probe crossed the outer edge of the heliosphere on 5 November.

This boundary, called the heliopause, is where the tenuous, hot solar wind meets the cold, dense interstellar medium. 

Its twin, Voyager 1, crossed this boundary in 2012, but Voyager 2 carries a working instrument that will provide first-of-its-kind observations of the nature of this gateway into interstellar space.

Voyager 2 now is slightly more than 11 billion miles (18 billion kilometers) from Earth

 

Mission operators still can communicate with Voyager 2 as it enters this new phase of its journey, but information – moving at the speed of light – takes about 16.5 hours to travel from the spacecraft to Earth.

By comparison, light travelling from the sun takes about eight minutes to reach Earth.

The most compelling evidence of Voyager 2s exit from the heliosphere came from its onboard Plasma Science Experiment (PLS), an instrument that stopped working on Voyager 1 in 1980, long before that probe crossed the heliopause. 

Until recently, the space surrounding Voyager 2 was filled predominantly with plasma flowing out from our sun. 

This outflow, called the solar wind, creates a bubble – the heliosphere – that envelopes the planets in our solar system. 

The PLS uses the electrical current of the plasma to detect the speed, density, temperature, pressure and flux of the solar wind. 

The PLS aboard Voyager 2 observed a steep decline in the speed of the solar wind particles on 5 November. 

The most compelling evidence (left) of Voyager 2¿s exit from the heliosphere came from its onboard Plasma Science Experiment (right), an instrument that stopped working on Voyager 1 in 1980, long before that probe crossed the heliopause

The most compelling evidence (left) of Voyager 2s exit from the heliosphere came from its onboard Plasma Science Experiment (right), an instrument that stopped working on Voyager 1 in 1980, long before that probe crossed the heliopause

NASAS HISTORIC INSTERSTELLAR VOYAGER MISSION 

The Voyager spacecraft were built by NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, which continues to operate both. 

Nasa launched the Voyager 1 spacecraft on September 5 1977, and the Voyager 2 on August 20 1977.

Each spacecraft carries a golden record on board – a record that includes sounds, pictures and messages of Earth.

Continuing on their more-than-37-year journey since their 1977 launches, they each are much farther away from Earth and the sun than Pluto. 

In August 2012, Voyager 1 made the historic entry into interstellar space, the region between stars, filled with material ejected by the death of nearby stars millions of years ago. 

Humanitys farthest and longest-live spacecraft, Voyager 1 and 2, are celebrating 40 years of operation and exploration this month. Nasa launched the Voyager 1 spacecraft on September 5 1977, and the Voyager 2 on August 20 1977

Humanitys farthest and longest-live spacecraft, Voyager 1 and 2, are celebrating 40 years of operation and exploration this month. Nasa launched the Voyager 1 spacecraft on September 5 1977, and the Voyager 2 on August 20 1977

This archival photo shows engineers working on the Voyager 2 spacecraft on March 23, 1977. Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to have flown by all four outer planets ¿ Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune

This archival photo shows engineers working on the Voyager 2 spacecraft on March 23, 1977. Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to have flown by all four outer planets – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune

Scientists hope to learn more about this region when Voyager 2, in the heliosheath -- the outermost layer of the heliosphere where the solar wind is slowed by the pressure of interstellar medium -- also reaches interstellar space. 

Both spacecraft are still sending scientific information about their surroundings through the Deep Space Network, or DSN.

The primary mission was the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. 

After making a string of discoveries there -- such as active volcanoes on Jupiters moon Io and intricacies of Saturns rings -- the mission was extended. 

Voyager 2 went on to explore Uranus and Neptune, and is still the only spacecraft to have visited those outer planets. 

The adventurers current mission, the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM), will explore the outermost edge of the suns domain. And beyond.

 Source: NASA

Since that date, the plasma instrument has observed no solar wind flow in the environment around Voyager 2, which makes mission scientists confident the probe has left the heliosphere.

In addition to the plasma data, Voyagers science team members have seen evidence from three other onboard instruments – the cosmic ray subsystem, the low energy charged particle instrument and the magnetometer.

The findings from this data is consistent with the conclusion that Voyager 2 has crossed the heliopause.

Voyagers team members are eager to continue to study the data from these other onboard instruments to get a clearer picture of the environment through which Voyager 2 is travelling.

Members of NASAs Voyager team will discuss the findings at a news conference at 11 a.m. EST (8 a.m. PST) today at the meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in Washington.

The news conference will stream live on the agencys website.

Voyagers team members are eager to continue to study the data from  onboard instruments to get a clearer picture of the environment through which Voyager 2 (pictured) is travelling

Voyagers team members are eager to continue to study the data from onboard instruments to get a clearer picture of the environment through which Voyager 2 (pictured) is travelling

RECORDS SET BY THE VOYAGERS

-  In 2012, Voyager 1 became the only spacecraft to have entered interstellar space

- Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to have flown by all four outer planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune

- Their numerous planetary encounters include discovering the first active volcanoes beyond Earth, on Jupiters moon Io, and hints of a subsurface ocean on Jupiters moon Europa

- They also discovered the most Earth-like atmosphere in the solar system, on Saturns moon Titan; the jumbled-up, icy moon Miranda at Uranus; and icy-cold geysers on Neptunes moon Triton

There is still a lot to learn about the region of interstellar space immediately beyond the heliopause, said Ed Stone, Voyager project scientist based at Caltech in Pasadena, California.

Together, the two Voyagers provide a detailed glimpse of how our heliosphere interacts with the constant interstellar wind flowing from beyond.

NASA also is preparing an additional mission – the upcoming Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP), due to launch in 2024 – to capitalize on the Voyagers observations.

Voyager has a very special place for us in our heliophysics fleet, said Nicola Fox, director of the Heliophysics Division at NASA Headquarters.

Our studies start at the Sun and extend out to everything the solar wind touches.

To have the Voyagers sending back information about the edge of the suns influence gives us an unprecedented glimpse of truly uncharted territory.

While the probes have left the heliosphere, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 have not yet left the solar system, and wont be leaving anytime soon.

The boundary of the solar system is considered to be beyond the outer edge of the Oort Cloud, a collection of small objects that are still under the influence of the suns gravity.

The width of the Oort Cloud is not known precisely, but it is estimated to begin at about 1,000 astronomical units (AU) from the sun and to extend to about 100,000 AU.

Each spacecraft carries a golden record on board ¿ a record that includes sounds, pictures and messages of Earth

Each spacecraft carries a golden record on board – a record that includes sounds, pictures and messages of Earth

Uranus icy moon Miranda is seen in this image from Voyager 2 on January 24, 1986. It will take about 300 years for Voyager 2 to reach the inner edge of the Oort Cloud and possibly 30,000 years to fly beyond it

Uranus icy moon Miranda is seen in this image from Voyager 2 on January 24, 1986. It will take about 300 years for Voyager 2 to reach the inner edge of the Oort Cloud and possibly 30,000 years to fly beyond it

Neptunes blue-green atmosphere is shown in greater detail than ever before by the Voyager 2 spacecraft

Neptunes blue-green atmosphere is shown in greater detail than ever before by the Voyager 2 spacecraft

One AU is the distance from the sun to Earth. 

It will take about 300 years for Voyager 2 to reach the inner edge of the Oort Cloud and possibly 30,000 years to fly beyond it.

The Voyager probes are powered using heat from the decay of radioactive material, contained in a device called a radioisotope thermal generator (RTG).

The power output of the RTGs diminishes by about four watts per year, which means that various parts of the Voyagers, including the cameras on both spacecraft, have been turned off over time to manage power.

I think were all happy and relieved that the Voyager probes have both operated long enough to make it past this milestone, said Suzanne Dodd, Voyager project manager at NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California.

This is what weve all been waiting for. Now were looking forward to what well be able to learn from having both probes outside the heliopause.

كلمة التحرير كتاب واراء مختارات من الصحافة حول العالم لبنان سورية صحة بيئه ابراج نهفة اليوم إعلانات تصويت
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