الصينيون.. أنزلوا أول سفينة فضاء على جانب غامض من القمر

رئيس التحرير
2019.06.18 09:53

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

فعلها الصينيون.. أنزلوا أول سفينة فضاء على جانب غامض من القمر لم يصل إليه البشر، وهذا هدفهم السري من الرحلة
 
 

في خبر قد يزعج الأميركيين كثيراً، أُعلن عن هبوط سفينة فضاء صينية على الجانب المظلم من القمر في خطوة هي الأولى من نوعها، وتمثل قفزة هائلة في مسيرة استكشاف البشر للفضاءَ.

فقد قامت إدارة الفضاء الوطنيّة الصينيّة (CNSA) بإنزال المسبار Chang’e 4غير المأهول في حوض أيتكين بالقطب الجنوبيّ للقمر اليوم الخميس 3 يناير/كانون الأول 2019، وهو أكبر وأقدم وأعمق فوهة على سطح القمر، وفقاً لما ذكرته وسائل الإعلام الصينية الحكوميّة.

وأثارت التقارير الأوليّة عن عملية الهبوط الناجحة الحيرة والارتباك، حسبما ورد في تقرير لصحيفة The Guardian البريطانية.

  
Al Jazeera English ✔@AJEnglish
 

Chinas Change 4 went where no one else has - the far side of the moon.

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5:30 AM - Jan 3, 2019
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وحدث هذا الارتباك بعد أن حذفت صحيفة China Daily وقناة CGTN الحكوميّتان تغريداتٍ (على حسابَيهما بتويتر) تحتفي بالمهمة.

وكانت تغريدة China Daily تقول: ”هبط المسبار الصينيّ Chang’e 4 على الجانب الآخر من القمر، مدشناً بداية فصل جديد في تاريخ استكشاف البشر للقمر“.

ولكن جاء التأكيد الرسميّ لعملية هبوط سفينة فضاء صينية على الجانب المظلم من القمر بعد ساعتَين من خلال قناة CCTV الحكوميّة، التي قالت إنّ المسبار هبط على سطح القمر في تمام الساعة 10:26 صباحاً بالتوقيت المحلي (أي 2:26 صباحاً بتوقيت غرينيتش).

وقالت صحيفة Global Times، المملوكة للحزب الشيوعيّ الصيني، إنّ المسبار قد ”حقق بنجاح أوّل هبوط سلِس“ على الجانب المظلم من القمر.

هبوط سفينة فضاء صينية على الجانب المظلم من القمر أصبح مُثبتاً بالصور  

وأظهرت صورة غردت بها النسخة الناطقة بالإنكليزية من قناة CCTV أوّلَ لقطة قريبة لسطح الجانب البعيد من القمر.

واسم السفينة Chang’e (وهو مأخوذ من إلهة القمر الصينية).

والهدف العلمي من عملية هبوط سفينة فضاء صينية على الجانب المظلم من القمر هو القيام بقياسات تفصيليّة لمكوّنات تربة ومعادن القمر.

ويُعتقَد أنّ حوض أيتكين تكوَّن خلال تصادم مهول في فترة مبكّرة من تاريخ القمر.

ومن المرجّح أن التصادم قد أدّى إلى تناثر مواد من داخل القمر، ما يعني أنّ مسبار Chang’e 4 يمكنه أن يمدّنا بأدلة جديدة حول كيفية تشكّل ذلك التابع الطبيعيّ للأرض.

والمنافسون الغربيون يعترفون بنجاح الصين ولكن يرونها ليست مهمة علمية فقط

هبوط سفينة فضاء صينية على الجانب المظلم من القمر بنجاح أثار ضجة في الأوساط الفضائية.

إذ وصف الهبوط بأنه”إنجاز مشهود آخر لصالح الصين“، بحسب مالكوم ديفيس، أحد كبار المحلّلين في القدرات والاستراتيجيّات الدفاعيّة في المعهد الأستراليّ للسياسات الاستراتيجيّة.

وقال ديفيس: ”يتعلّق الأمر كثيراً بالاعتبارات الجيوسياسية والسياسات الفلكيّة. إنها ليست مهمّة علميّة فحسب؛ ولكن الأمر يتعلّق بصعود نجم الصين قوّةً عظمى في الساحة الدوليّة».

وأضاف قائلاً: «يعم الصين الكثير من الحماس لهذا البرنامج الفضائي، إذ ينتشر الحسّ القوميّ هناك، ويرون أن دور الصين في الفضاء هو جزء رئيسيّ من نهضة البلاد وصعودها في الساحة الدوليّة“.

حتى إن ناسا وصفته بالإنجاز الرائع، لكنه قد يشعل النار تحت أقدام الأميركيين

وأشاد مدير وكالة ناسا NASA جيم برایدنستاین بعملية هبوط سفينة فضاء صينية على الجانب المظلم من القمر، وصفها بأنّها ”إنجاز رائع“.

وقال متحدّث باسم وكالة الفضاء الأستراليّة إنّ الوكالة ليس لديها تعليق على البعثة سوى تهنئة الصين بنجاح الهبوط، وأن ”تتمنّى لهم كلّ الخير“.

وأوضح ديفيس أن الهبوط الصينيّ الناجح يمكن أن ”يشعل النار تحت أقدام الأميركيّين“ الذين ربّما لن تروقهم احتمال أنّ ثاني شخص يضع قدمَيه على القمر قد يكون رائد فضاء صينيّاً أو تايكونوت صينياً (taikonaut) كما يُسمّى على نحوٍ غير رسميّ في الإنكليزيّة.

وأضاف ديفيس أنّه يتصوّر ”أننا سنرى الصين تعلن عن نيّتها إرسال روّاد فضاء صينيّين إلى القمر بحلول عام 2030“.

  
CGTN ✔@CGTNOfficial
 

World reaction on historic #ChangE4 landing

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ودخل مسبار Chang’e 4 في مسار بيضاويّ حول القمر نهاية الأسبوع الماضي، مقترباً من سطح القمر على مسافة 15 كيلومتراً.

والتقطت سفن الفضاء صوراً للجانب الآخر من القمر من قبل، إلّا أنّ سفينةً لم تهبط عليه قبل اليوم الخميس 3 يناير/كانون الثاني 2019.

ويبدو أن الصينيين يريدون الهيمنة على القمر بحثاً عن هذه الثروة الضخمة تحديداً

والجانب البعيد من القمر، كان دوماً الجانب الأكثر غموضاً نظراً لأنه لايرى من الأرض، لأن سرعة دوران القمر مماثلة للأرض، وبالتالي فنتيجة لتزامن حركتهما يظل هذا الجانب دوماً في الجهة الأخرى التي لاتُرى من الأرض.

ويمثّل هبوط سفينة فضاء صينية على الجانب المظلم من القمر خطوةً باتجاه تحقيق طموح بكين أن تصبح قوة رائدة في مجال استكشاف الفضاء إلى جانب الولايات المتّحدة وروسيا.

 
 
 
الصين لها أهداف استراتيجية من هذا الهبوط التاريخي/مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي

وقال ديفيس إنّ طموحات الصين في الفضاء تبدو مدفوعةً بعدّة عوامل، منها الرغبة في الهيمنة العسكريّة على الفضاء.

ومن الدوافع الأخرى الوصول إلى ثروة ضخمة من الموارد الموجودة على القمر والكويكبات، وتحديداً هيليوم-3 (وهو نظير غير مشعّ لغاز الهيليوم)، والذي يُعتقَد أن هناك وفرة هائلة منه على القمر، بينما هو نادر على الأرض.

حتى إنهم أصبحوا يشبّهون القمر بتايوان التي يعتبرونها جزءاً من بلادهم

ويشكل هبوط سفينة فضاء صينيّة على الجانب المظلم من القمر علامة على تنامي قوّة بكين فضائياً وسعيها في الوقت ذاته للهيمنة على هذا الجرم السماوي.

ويقول ديفيس: ”إنّ الصين تفهم هذا الأمر فهماً واضحاً. لقد شبّهوا القمر بمنطقة بحر الصين الجنوبيّ وتايوان، وشبّهوا الكويكبات ببحر الصين الشرقيّ».

وتابع قائلاً: «إنّهم يعقدون مقارنات جيوسياسية واضحة جدّاً بين ما يحدث على الأرض وما يحدث في الفضاء، ونحن بحاجة إلى الانتباه إلى هذا الأمر“.

  
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China Xinhua News ✔@XHNews
 

Chinas Change-4 probe touches down on the far side of the moon, becoming the first spacecraft soft-landing on the moons uncharted side never visible from Earth http://xhne.ws/4Y9jN 

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Chinese spacecraft becomes first EVER to touch down on dark side of the moon as it transmits never-before-seen close range images after making historic landing A Chinese spacecraft called Change 4 has successfully made the first landing on the far side of the moon The lunar explorer touched down at 10.26am (2.26am GMT) local time in the Aitken basins Von Karman crater The mission communicates with Earth via a relay satellite known as the Queqiao which launched in May  Moons Von Karman crater is at its south pole and is 1,600 miles across and eight miles deep                               e-mail      

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A Chinese spacecraft has made the first-ever landing on the far side of the moon as it transmitted a never-before-seen image of the unexplored surface.

Lunar explorer Change-4 touched down at 10.26am local time (2.26am GMT), state media reported, and took the close range photograph in a global first.

While stationed on the moon, the Change-4 will attempt to recce the famous Von Karman crater in the Aitken basin, the largest impact crater in the entire solar system at eight miles (13 km) deep and 1,600 miles (2,500 km) in diameter. 

It will also be tasked with carrying out mineral and radiation tests, presenting scientists with the first-ever chance to examine materials from the far side of the moon.

The far side of the moon - colloquially known as the dark side - actually gets as much light as the near side but always faces away from Earth.  This is because the moon is tidally locked to Earth, rotating at the same rate that it orbits our planet, so the far side - or the dark side - is never visible from our planet.

This relatively unexplored region is mountainous and rugged, making a successful landing much harder to achieve. 

It appears to take on a reddish hue in some of the images released by China, according to Christopher Conselice, a professor of astrophysics at the University of Nottingham who said it is an effect from the lights used on the mission.   

The pioneering landing demonstrates Chinas growing ambitions to rival the US as a space power, with Beijing hoping to send another probe next year that will retrieve samples and bring them back to Earth. 

Images, footage and information regarding the Change-4 mission were scarce prior to the announcement from the China National Space Administration (CNSA) of a successful landing due to the nations quest to beat the US, Europe and Russia to the landmark achievement. 

Footage later emerged of the landing after it was spotted playing inside the control room by an eagle-eyed onlooker - but was not live streamed to the public by the secretive space agency. 

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A never-before-seen close range image taken by the Chinese spacecraft Change-4 of the surface of the far side of the moon. It appears to take on a reddish hue in some of the images released by China, an effect of the lights used by the probe

 

A photograph taken from the Change-4 probe during its landing process, as it became the first rover to ever reach the surface of the dark side of the moon

 

This is one of the first ever close-up images taken of the dark side of the moon which never faces towards Earth. This region is vastly unexplored and unknown to scientists compared to the side of the moon we can see and have visited with the Apollo and subsequent NASA missions 

Control center screen shows Moons dark side as Change-4 lands
 
 
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There have been numerous landings on the moon as a result of the 20th century space race between the US and the USSR - including the famed Apollo 11 mission which saw Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin become the first humans on the moon. After Luna 24  landed on August 18 the next lunar landing was the Chinese mission Change-3 on December 14 2013. Change-4 is the first spacecraft to land on the far side of the moon 

 
 

The Lunar explorer touched down at 10.26am local time (2.26am GMT). While stationed on the moon, Change-4 will attempt to recce the Von in the Aitken basin, the largest impact crater in the entire solar system at eight miles (13 km) deep and 1,600 miles (2,500 km) in diameter

WHY DOES THE FAR SIDE OF THE MOON LOOK RED?  

One of the first images to emerge from the Change-4 lunar probe on the dark side of the moon shows a crater and a ridge in the background bathed in a reddish hue.

The entire image is tinged in a pink glow which makes the surface resemble Mars more than it does the moon.

This, according to Christopher Conselice, a professor of astrophysics at the University of Nottingham, is merely a trick of the light.

He told MailOnline: The appearance of the reddish hue of the image from the lunar probe is a trick of the light.

The surface of the far side of the moon is the same colour as on the near side, but the illumination from the lamp on Change-4 created a glow which altered the way it looks.

Professor Conselice compared the image to when a lamp is turned on in the corner of the room and changes the way the surfaces are perceived.

He also says that the light appears to span to the horizon due to the location of the probe within the Von Karman crater and its proximity to a large ridge which hides the more distant terrain.

 

Beijing is pouring billions into the military-run programme, with hopes of having a crewed space station by 2022, and of eventually sending humans to the moon.

The Change-4 lunar probe mission - named after the moon goddess in Chinese mythology - launched last December from the southwestern Xichang launch centre.

It is the second Chinese probe to land on the moon, following the Yutu rover mission in 2013.

The probe entered orbit on Sunday to prepare for the first-ever soft landing on the far side of the moon, the China National Space Administration said.

The moon is tidally locked to Earth, rotating at the same rate that it orbits our planet, so the far side - or the dark side - is never visible from Earth. 

Previous spacecraft have seen the far side of the moon, but none has landed on it.

China launched the Change-4 probe earlier this month, carried by a Long March-3B rocket. 

It includes a lander and a rover to explore the surface of the moon.

Xinhua said the probe had entered an elliptical lunar orbit at 08.55 Beijing time, which brought it 15 kilometres away from the surface of the moon. 

The Change-4 first entered a lunar orbit on December 12.

The tasks of the Change-4 include astronomical observation, surveying the moons terrain, landform and mineral composition, and measuring the neutron radiation and neutral atoms to study the environment on the far side of the moon.

 
 

Why does the moon look RED? The first high resolution image of the far side of the moon from the Change-4 probe was illuminated by a powerful lamp giving it a pinkish-red hue. It shows the undulating terrain leading up to a large ridge

 

Emotional space technicians celebrate the landing at the Beijing Aerospace Control Centre. Beijing is pouring billions into the military-run programme, with hopes of having a crewed space station by 2022, and of eventually sending humans to the moon

 

Technicians work at the Beijing Aerospace Control Center (BACC) in Beijingto make the Change-4 probe landing successful. It touched down on the far side of the moon and in the process became the first spacecraft soft-landing on the moons uncharted dark side which is never visible from Earth

 

The Beijing Aerospace Control Centre looks on anxiously as the lunar rover begins its approach to the surface

 
 

The Change-4 (artists impression pictured), entered lunar orbit earlier this week, and will soon be the first ever rover to land on the far side of the lunar surface. A lander will help guide the spacecraft to the dark side of the moon

 

A simulation released by the Chinese space agency (CNSA) shows how the probe, comprising a lander and a rover, would have landed at a preselected area on the far side of the moon

WHY IS THE FAR SIDE OF THE MOON KNOWN AS THE DARK SIDE? 

The far side of the moon - colloquially known as the dark side - actually gets as much light as the near side but always faces away from Earth.

Less than a fifth of the opposite half of the moon is ever visible and it wasnt until 1959 until we received images of what it looked like when the Soviet Luna 3 spacecraft returned snapped the mysterious region.  

In 1968, astronauts aboard the Apollo 8 spacecraft were the first humans to set eyes on the far side in person as they orbited the moon.

Since then, several missions by NASA and other space agencies have imaged the lunar far side.

That includes NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft, which imaged the far side from a distance of 31 million miles (49m km) in 2008.

This relatively unexplored region is mountainous and rugged, making a successful landing much harder to achieve.

Professor of astrophysics at the University of Nottingham, Christopher Conselice, said the far side is much more rugged and has less volcanic activity than the side we see from Earth. 

 

China aims to catch up with Russia and the United States to become a major space power by 2030. 

It is planning to launch construction of its own manned space station next year. 

However, while China has insisted its ambitions are purely peaceful, the U.S. Defense Department has accused it of pursuing activities aimed at preventing other nations from using space-based assets during a crisis.

The space control centre will select a proper time to land the probe on the far side of the moon, Xinhua reported. 

Its descent is being aided by a relay satellite, the Queqiao, or Magpie Bridge.

Retrorockets on the probe fired on 12 December to stabilise the spacecraft and slow it down.  

It took off from the Xichang satellite launch centre in Sichuan, south-west China at 6:30 GMT on December 7 atop a Long March-3B rocket.

It performed a soft-landing and land on the moon after completing its 27 day journey through space. 

Exploring the huge divot on the surface of the moonmay shed new light on its history and geology by collecting rocks that have never been seen before. 

Researchers hope the huge depth of the crater will allow them to study the moons mantle, the layer underneath the surface, of the moon.

 

Change-4 probe set to fly to the dark side of the moon
 
 
 
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The relay satellite which will allow the probe to communicate with engineers in Beijing is called Queqiao and had to fly to a Earth-Moon point in orbit around 80,000 km away from the moons surface (pictured)

 

The Chinese plan involved two missions. One placed a satellite in orbit around the moon to provide a means of sending information and data back to Earth (left). The other part involves a lander and rover which will work together to explore the surface of the moon (right)

WHY DID CHINA CHOOSE TO LAND IN THE VON KARMAN CRATER?

 Change-4 landed in the Von Karman crater in the South Pole-Aitken basin.

This is an enormous crater which resides at the very most southern tip of the moon.   

China opted to study the far side of the moon and has in the process beat all other nations to the landmark moment.  

The basin is so far the largest known impact basin in the solar system. 

Chinas space agency hopes that by exploring the huge divot on the surface of the moon they may be able to shed some light on its history and geology by collecting rocks that have never been seen before. 

Researchers hope the huge depth of the crater will allow them to study the moons mantle, the layer underneath the surface, of the moon.  

The crater is believed to be composed of various chemical compounds, including thorium, iron oxide, and titanium dioxide.

It is also hoped that by judging this 8-mile deep scar on the surface of the moon the scientists could find clues to piece together the origin of the lunar mantle. 

There is also another logistical reason for the choice of landing site, the crater is mostly flat in the south of the basin. 

This increased the likelihood of a successful landing.  

 
 
 
 

Models of Change-4 reveal how the probe on the far side of the moon will look (pictured). The large solar panels and protective gold foil will power and protect the probe from the extreme radiation in space 

 

Chinas Change-4 probe (model pictured) is a major achievement for Chinese space exploration. It will study the chemical composition of the soil and also look at how potato and Arabidopsis seeds will cope on the lunar surface 

Exploring the huge divot on the surface of the moon may shed new light on its history and geology by collecting rocks that have never been seen before. 

Researchers hope the huge depth of the crater will allow them to study the moons mantle, the layer underneath the surface, of the moon.

Change-4 has been described as hugely ambitious and heralded as a sign of Chinas growing intentions to rival the space exploration prowess of the US, Russia and the EU.   

To facilitate communication between controllers on Earth and the Change-4 mission, China launched a relay satellite named Queqiao on 20 May and is now stationed in operational orbit about 40,000 miles beyond the moon.

This will be the primary form of communication between Earth and the spacecraft. 

The probe and explorer will use Queqiao to get their findings back to China. As the landing is happening on the dark side of the moon it required its own satellite to be able to send information back. 

Chinas latest mission closely follows the touchdown of NASAs InSight spacecraft on Mars, at a site less than 400 miles (640 kilometres) from the American rover Curiosity, the only other working robot on Mars. 

 

Change-4 (model pictured) is the second Chinese probe to land on the moon, following the Yutu rover mission in 2013. The probe entered orbit on Sunday to prepare for the first-ever soft landing on the far side of the moon, the China National Space Administration said

 

Chinas latest mission which puts a probe on the moon (model pictured) closely follows the touchdown of NASAs InSight spacecraft on Mars, at a site less than 400 miles (640 kilometres) from the American rover Curiosity, the only other working robot on Mars

A TIMELINE OF HOW CHINA REACHED THE FAR SIDE OF THE MOON

October 24 2007 - China launches Change-1, an unmanned satellite, into space where it remains operational for more than a year. 

October 1 2010 - China launches Change-2. This was part of the first phase of the Chinese moon programme. It was in a 100-km-high lunar orbit to gather data for the upcoming Change-3 mission. 

September 29, 2011 - China launched Tiangong 1. 

September 15 2013 - A second space lab, Tiangong 2, is launched. 

December 1 2013 - Change-3 launched.  

December 14 2013 - Change-3, a 2,600 lb (1,200 kg) lunar probe landed on the near side of the moon successfully. It became the first object to soft-land on the Moon since Luna 24 in 1976. 

April 1 2018 - Tiangong-1 crashed into Earth at 17,000 mph and lands in the ocean off the coast if Tahiti. 

May 20 2018 - China launched a relay satellite named Queqiao which is stationed in operational orbit about 40,000 miles beyond the moon. This is designed to enable Change-4 to communicate wit engineers back on Earth. 

December 7 2018 - Chinese space agency announces it has launched the Change-4 probe into space. 

December 12 2018 -  Retrorockets on the probe fired to stabilise the spacecraft and slow it down. 

December 31 2018 -   The probe prepared for the first-ever soft landing on the far side of the moon.  

Estimated for 2020 - Tiangong 3,a follow-up mission to the Tiangong-2 

Before 2033 - China plans for its first uncrewed Mars exploration program.

2040 - 2060 - The Asian superpower is planning a crewed mission to Mars. 

 
 

The Change-4 lunar rover is lifted into space from the Xichang launch centre in Xichang in Chinas southwestern Sichuan province on December 7

 

Retrorockets on the probe fired on 12 December to stabilise the spacecraft and slow it down and it entered lunar orbit on December 13 after a 110 hour journey through space 

 

Change-4 launched from the Xichang satellite launch centre in Sichuan, south-west China at 6:30 GMT on December 7 

 

The payload on the Change 4 probe is believed to include materials necessary for experiments, including a low-frequency radio spectrometer, a panoramic camera and lunar penetrating radar, among other things

 

The probe and explorer will use Queqiao to get their findings back to China. As the landing is happening on the dark side of the moon it required its own satellite to be able to send information back (animation pictured)

WHAT IS THE LUNAR MINI BIOSPHERE ABOARD THE CHANGE-4 PROBE?

As well as radiation monitoring and mineralogical experiments, Chinas Change-4 probe contains a lunar mini biosphere to perform biological studies.

It holds potato seeds and silkworm eggs, as well as arabidopsis seeds - plants related to cabbage and mustard that are commonly used by biologists as a model for how plants behave in different environments. 

Researchers hope the seeds will grow to blossom on the Moon, with the process captured on camera and transmitted to Earth. 

The 6.6lb (three kg) cylindrical tin is made from a specially developed aluminium alloy.

It is seven inches (18 cm) tall, with a diameter of six inches (16 cm) and a net volume of 1.4 pints (0.8 litres).

As well as seeds, it contains water, a nutrient solution, air and equipment including a small camera and data transmission system.

It will use a tube to direct sunlight on the surface of the Moon into the tin to allow the plants to grow.

Researchers from 28 Chinese Universities are behind the project, led by southwest Chinas Chongqing University. 

Astronauts have previously cultivated plants on the International Space Station. Rice and arabidopsis were also grown on Chinas Tiangong-2 space lab.

Both of these experiments were conducted in low Earth orbit and under very different conditions.

Experts hope that the new experiment will help accumulate knowledge for building a lunar base and long-term residence on the Moon.

 

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