رويترز

أعلنت الهيئة المانحة لجوائز نوبل، الثلاثاء 8 أكتوبر/تشرين الأول 2019، فوز العلماء جيمس بيبلز وميشيل مايور وديدييه كويلو بجائزة نوبل للفيزياء لعام 2019 تقديراً لعملهم الرائد في مجال الفلك.

 

وقالت الأكاديمية الملكية السويدية للعلوم في بيان منح الجائزة التي تبلغ قيمتها تسعة ملايين كرونة سويدية (910 آلاف دولار) «الفائزون هذا العام غيروا أفكارنا عن الكون».

 

وأضافت: «في الوقت الذي أسهمت فيه اكتشافات جيمس بيبلز النظرية في فهمنا لكيفية تطور الكون بعد الانفجار العظيم، استكشف ميشيل مايور وديدييه كويلو جيراننا الكونيين في رحلة بحث دؤوب عن الكواكب غير المعروفة. لقد غيرت اكتشافاتهم مفاهيمنا عن العالم إلى الأبد».

 

ويوم الإثنين 7 أكتوبر/تشرين الأول، فاز عالمان أمريكيان وثالث من بريطانيا بجائزة نوبل للطب لعام 2019 بفضل اكتشاف كيفية تكيف الخلايا مع تغير مستويات الأكسجين، ما يمهد الطريق لاستراتيجيات جديدة لمكافحة أمراض مثل الأنيميا والسرطان.

 

وأعلنت الهيئة المانحة لجوائز نوبل فوز الأمريكيين وليام كايلين وجريج سيمينزا والبريطاني بيتر راتكليف بالجائزة.

 

وقالت جمعية نوبل في معهد كارولينسكا بالسويد في بيان منح الجائزة التي تبلغ قيمتها تسعة ملايين كرونة سويدية (913 ألف دولار) «أوضحت اكتشافات الفائزين بنوبل هذا العام آلية واحدة من أهم عمليات التكيف الأساسية للحياة».

 

وقال المعهد إن أبحاثهم وضعت الأساس لفهم كيف تؤثر مستويات الأكسجين على الأيض الخلوي والوظائف الفسيولوجية.

 

وتابع «يعد استشعار الأكسجين أمراً أساسياً في عدد كبير من الأمراض.. تركز الجهود المكثفة في المختبرات الأكاديمية وشركات الأدوية حالياً على تطوير عقاقير يمكنها أن تتداخل مع حالات مرضية مختلفة إما عن طريق تنشيط أو تعطيل آلية استشعار الأكسجين».

 

 

 

Scientists who discovered the first exoplanet orbiting a sun-like star win the Nobel Prize for Physics alongside a Princeton cosmologist who studied the Big Bang

By SAM BLANCHARD and MILLY VINCENT FOR MAILONLINE

 

The Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to three scientists for their work exploring the universe. 

Canadian cosmologist Professor James Peebles was the first to be announced at the event in Sweden today, and was awarded for his work in the field of cosmology.

And Professor Michel Mayor and Professor Didier Queloz, both working in Switzerland, also won for discovering the first exoplanet orbiting a sun-like star in 1995.

Professor Michel Mayor (left) and Professor Didier Queloz worked together to discover the planet 51 Pegasi b in 1995, the first one to be discovered orbiting a star which isnt the Milky Ways sun

Professor Michel Mayor (left) and Professor Didier Queloz worked together to discover the planet 51 Pegasi b in 1995, the first one to be discovered orbiting a star which isnt the Milky Ways sun

Canadian cosmologist Professor James Peebles was the first winner to be announced at the event in Sweden today, and was awarded for his work in the field of cosmology

Canadian cosmologist Professor James Peebles was the first winner to be announced at the event in Sweden today, and was awarded for his work in the field of cosmology

Scientist compares universe to cup of coffee during Nobel ceremony
 
 
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The three scientists were credited for their contribution to the understanding of the evolution of the universe and Earths place in the cosmos.

They will share a 9million kronor (£740,000) cash award, a gold medal and a diploma. 

Professor James Peebles will take half of the winnings while the Swiss duo Professor Michel Mayor and Professor Didier Queloz, will share the other £370,000.

Speaking of the Swiss duos work on exoplanets the Nobel Assembly said: The discovery by 2019 Nobel Prize laureates Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz started a revolution in astronomy and over 4,000 exoplanets have since been found in the Milky Way.

Strange new worlds are still being discovered, with an incredible wealth of sizes, forms and orbits.   

Prof. Queloz and Prof. Mayor discovered 51 Pegasi b at the University of Geneva in 1995.

Theirs was the first confirmation of the existence of an exoplanet, which is one which orbits a star other than our Sun.

It is now regarded as a pivotal moment in astronomy because no planet other than those in our own solar system had ever been found before. 

Since the discovery, Professor Queloz has successfully developed the Doppler technique to be more precise, leading to the discovery of further 1,900 or so confirmed exoplanets. One 10th of those were discovered by Queloz himself.  

Professor Michel Mayor, an astronomer at the University of Geneva, was one of three men to win the Nobel Prize for Physics at the ceremony in Sweden today

Professor Michel Mayor, an astronomer at the University of Geneva, was one of three men to win the Nobel Prize for Physics at the ceremony in Sweden today

PROFESSOR MAYOR AND PROFESSOR QUELOZ DISCOVERED THE FIRST ORBITING PLANET OUTSIDE OUR SOLAR SYSTEM

The professors discovered the first exoplanet known to man – a planet that orbits a star other than our Sun. 

51 Pegasi b is a gaseous ball similar to Jupiter and was discovered by the professors at the Haute-Provence Observatory in southern France in 1995.

Since the discovery, over 4,000 exoplanets have since been found – 1,900 of which have been confirmed.   

Professor Queloz and Professor Mayors discovery is now regarded as a pivotal moment in astronomy that changed our understanding of our place in the universe. No planet other than those in our own solar system had ever been found before. 

Canadian cosmologist Professor James Peebles was also awarded for his work in cosmology.

Dr Göran K. Hansson, secretary general of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said today: This years prize goes to contributions to our understanding of the evolution of our universe and Earths place in the cosmos.

James Peebles took on the cosmos, with its billions of galaxies and galaxy clusters. 

His theoretical framework, developed over two decades, is the foundation of our modern understanding of the universes history, from the Big Bang to the present day.

In adding a mathematical approach to understanding the cosmos, Professor Peebles is credited with various contributions to the Big Bang theory through the analysis of relic radiation left over from the light rays which once pierced the hazy universe.

Speaking at the awards over the phone, Professor Peebles said: When I started working in this subject – I can tell you the date, 1964 – at the invitation of my mentor, Professor Robert Henry Dicke, I was very uneasy about going into this subject because the experimental observational basis was so modest. ... I just kept going. 

Which particular step did I take? I would be very hard-pressed to say. Its a lifes work. 

Member of the Nobel Committee for Physics Ulf Danielsson shows on a graphic as he speaks to the media during the announcement of the winners of the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on October 8, 2019 in Stockholm

Member of the Nobel Committee for Physics Ulf Danielsson shows on a graphic as he speaks to the media during the announcement of the winners of the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on October 8, 2019 in Stockholm

PROFESSOR PEEBLESS WORK IN COSMOLOGY 

Professor Peebles took the award for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology.

Professor Peebless work, which began in the 1960s, focuses on understanding how the universe is structured and how it came to be - adding a mathematical approach to cosmology.

He has made several important contributions to The Big Bang model uncovering how the universe has expanded over 14bn years.

Professor Peebles studied billions of galaxies and galaxy clusters in the cosmos to develop his theoretical framework forming the foundation of our modern understanding of the universes history, from the Big Bang to the present day.  

He analysed how light once travelled through the universe following the Big Bang by tracing relic radiation that remains in the universes cosmic microwave background. 

He discovered that 95 per cent of the universe is made up of dark energy and matter. 

He calculated that the observable universe including stars known to us only makes up five per cent of the universe.  

Professor Martin Rees, from the University of Cambridge, said: Jim Peebles played a key role back in 1965 in appreciating and interpreting the "cosmic microwave background" radiation - the "afterglow of creation".

He has been the most influential and respected leader of empirical cosmology with a sustained record of achievement spanning half a century.

The awards are the second to be announced this week after the medicine award was given yesterday and the chemistry, peace and literature prizes will follow.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was given yesterday to a team of three – Dr William Kaelin Jr, Dr Gregg Semenza and Dr Peter Ratcliffe – for their work uncovering details of how the bodys cells react to low oxygen levels. 

The Nobel prizes are some of the most prestigious in the world and arguably the most famous winner of the physics prize is Albert Einstein, who won it in 1921.

He won the prize for his discovery that light contained electrons which could be absorbed by other atoms.

Other winners include Marie Curie in 1903 for discovering radioactivity; Alexander Fleming in 1945 for developing penicillin; and Watson, Crick and Wilkins in 1962 for revealing the double-helix structure of DNA.

Yesterdays victors won the medicine prize for work they did which could lead to new cancer treatments.

Sir Peter Ratcliffe is based at the Francis Crick Institute in London, while Dr Kaelin and Dr Semenza are based at Harvard University and Johns Hopkins University in the US.

The trios research looked at how the body responds to low oxygen conditions.

When we are deprived of oxygen, there is a rise in the hormone erythropoietin (EPO), which boosts the production of oxygen-carrying red blood cells.

The researchers found that when oxygen levels drop, a cluster of proteins known as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) increases.

In normal conditions, HIF is broken down quickly and easily. But when there is a lack of oxygen the protein builds up and binds to segments of DNA near the gene for EPO.

The discovery described a fundamental physiological process that explains how animals can thrive in some of the highest altitudes on Earth.

But the findings could also prove crucial in a wide-range of fields, from treating diseases to foetal development and exercise.

In cancer, tumours can hijack the oxygen regulating process and trigger the development of new blood vessels, making it easier for the cancer to grow.

This is an area that is under investigation for new ways to treat and cure the killer disease.

WHO ARE THE PRIZE-WINNING SCIENTISTS? 

US-Canadian scientist James Peebles
Swiss astrophysicist Didier Queloz
Swiss Astronomer Michel Mayor
 

US-Canadian scientist James Peebles (left), Swiss astrophysicist Didier Queloz (centre) and Swiss Astronomer Michel Mayor (right)

Professor James Peebles, 84, from Winnipeg, Canada is a Professor Emeritus (retired) at Princeton University in the US who focuses on underappreciated issues in physical cosmology.

Professor Didier Queloz, 53, from Switzerland, teaches PhD Physics at the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Geneva and the University of Cambridge in the UK. 

Professor Michel Mayor, 77, from Lausanne, Switzerland is an astrophysicist at the University of Geneva, Switzerland. 

Together, Professor Queloz and Professor Mayor discovered the first planet outside the Milky Way in 1995, named 51 Pegasi b, orbiting the sun-like star 51 Pegasi.